• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • Assessed
  • ENPublished

Gymnoderma insulare Yoshim. & Sharp

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Scientific name
Gymnoderma insulare
Author
Yoshim. & Sharp
Common names
Tsubumi-goke
ツブミゴケ
IUCN Specialist Group
Lichens
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Lecanoromycetes
Order
Lecanorales
Family
Cladoniaceae
Assessment status
Published
IUCN Red List Category
EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Proposed by
Yoshihito Ohmura
Assessors
Olga Nadyeina
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg, Michael Krikorev, Olga Nadyeina, Yoshihito Ohmura

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

World distribution of this species is limited to only few locations in Japan (for the period of 1926-2012) and Taiwan (2007 only). This species grows on the trunk base of old-growth Cryptomeria japonica (in Japan) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (in Taiwan). Both host species are NT according to IUCN classification. Old forests with these two tree species were largely destroyed (by forestry or typhoons) and now only exist in limited preserved places.

Criterium A.
If we may consider reduction in EOO/AOO because of disappearing of population in Fukuoka Pref. (1 out of total 6 known localities: the population on Cryptomeria japonica in Mt. Hikosan (Fukuoka) was completely destroyed by a large typhoon in 1991 (Kashiwadani et al. 1998), data by pers. comm. Y. Ohmura). Then we may calculate reduction of EOO on 66% and reduction in AOO in 17%  ->> what is corresponding to EN threshold assessed by A2ac.

Criterium B.
EOO=167,283.245 km2—> B1 LC;
AOO=24.000 km2 and a) nb of locations is 6, b) continuous decline observed in area, extent and/or quolity of habitat (typhoons, forestry), number of locations or subpopulation (we know one extinct location because of typhoon in 1991).—->> this data is corresponding to EN threshold assessed by B2.

Criterium C. Not applicable, because no data on the number of individuals and population size decline.

Criterium D. Subcriterium D1 is not applicable: no data on the number of mature individuals. D2 criterium is just a bit higher then D2 VU—>> D2 LC

Criterium E. No quantitative analysis was done so far.
————————————————————————————
Preliminary Red List assessment: EN A2ac B2


Geographic range

It has been known only from Japan and Taiwan.


Population and Trends

World distribution of this species is limited by only few locations in Japan (for the period of 1926-2012) and Taiwan (2007 only). This species grows on the trunk base of old-growth Cryptomeria japonica (in Japan) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (in Taiwan).  Both host species are NT according to IUCN. Old forests with these two tree species were largely destroyed (by forestry or typhoons) and now only exist in limited preserved places. One out of total 6 known localities is extinct now because of large typhoon in 1991 (Kashiwadani et al. 1998).

Local trends:
1) - Type locality: Honshu., Mt. Koya, Wakayama Pref., 800 m, on trunk of Cryptomeria japonica. There are 14 specimens are known from this locality during 1926-2012 years (Y. Ohmura, pers. comm), the place is proteced, therefore we consider this location as stable for G. insulare.
2) - Kyushu. Pref. Kagoshima (Yakushima Is.), about 1000 m, on Cryptomeria japonica. There are only 2 specimens known, both collected in 1984 (Y. Ohmura, pers. comm), the place is protected. I would assume unknown population trend for this location.
3) - Kyushu. Pref. Fukuoka (Mt. Hikosan), on Cryptomeria japonica. The only specimen is known, collected in 1962 (Y. Ohmura, pers. comm), which was completely destroyed by a large typhoon in 1991 (Kashiwadani et al. 1998).—>RE population
4)Shikoku. Pref. Kochi - a photo from this location was taken in 2005 (Kawamata 2007), but identification is uncertain, because no voucher from this locality (Y. Ohmura, pers. comm)—>unknown trend
5)Shikoku. Pref. Ehime (Mt. Ishizuchi) - 1 specimen known, collected in 1933 (Y. Ohmura, pers. comm)—>unknown trend
6)Taiwan: Tashueshan Forest Park, on Chamaecyparis obtusa - 1 specimen is known, collected in 2007 (Kashiwadani & Moon 2010)—>unknown trend

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

On trunk base of old-growth Cryptomeria japonica or Chamaecyparis obtusa in a preserved forest. Both tree hosts are NT according to IUCN classification.

Temperate Forest

Threats

Typhoons, intensive forestry, road development, and collecting would damage the populations.


Conservation Actions

All locations of the species are protected areas.


Research needed

Need research on the assesing of the population size and number of individuals. Also searching of the species on the neighbourhood, like Phillipines or South Korea looks promising.


Bibliography

Yoshimura, I. and Sharp, A.J. 1968. A revision of the genus Gymnoderma. American Journal of Botany 55: 635-640.
Yoshimura, I. 1982. Distribution of Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nyl. and G. insulare Yoshim. & Sharp. Bulletin of Kochi Gakuen Junior College 13: 83-86.
Kashiwadani et al. 1998
Kashiwadani, H. and Moon, K. H. 2010. Noteworthy species of lichens found in Taiwan. Memoirs of the National Museum of Nature and Science (46): 65-68.
Kawamata A. 2007. Gymnoderma insulare Scharp. & Yoshim. Lichenology 6(1): cover illustration.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted