- Scientific name
- Sulcaria badia
- Brodo & D. Hawksw.
- Common names
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN Red List Criteria
- McMullin, T., Allen, J. & Lendemer, J.
- Scheidegger, C.
This species warrants a rank of Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) because its AOO is <500 km2, its population is severely fragmented, and its EOO and suitable habitat are under threat and are in decline. Only a few populations are in protected areas, and the population decline is thus ongoing.
This species is endemic to the west coast of the United States and is found from Washington to northern California. There are very few known populations of Sulcaria badia and negative impacts to the species from increasing residential and agricultural development have been documented. Three populations have already been reported as extirpated.
Population and Trends
This species was originally known from Washington, Oregon and California. However, the Washington population has not been successfully relocated (Peterson et al. 1998) and further searching did not result in any newly discovered populations in that area (Carlberg 2006). Sulcaria badia occurs at 11 localities that are presumed extant and 3 that are presumed to be extirpated (Carlberg and Toren 2006). At 7 of the 11 localities it is sparse, colonizing fewer than five trees (Carlberg and Toren 2009, McMullin 2015).
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
This species typically occurs in Quercus garryana
grasslands or rarely in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii
forests containing some Quercus kelloggii
and one site is in a coastal dune forest (Brodo and Hawksworth 1977, Peterson et al
. 1998, Carlberg and Toren 2006). It usually occurs on Quercus garryana,
but it is also known to grow on Acer macrophyllum, Fraxinus oregana, Malus
sp., Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii
, and Rhododendron macrophyllum
(Brodo and Hawksworth 1977, Peterson et al
. 1998, Carlberg and Toren 2006).
Agricultural development is a major threat to localities in the Quercus garryana grasslands due to the removal of trees and drift from fertilizers and herbicides (Peterson et al. 1998, Carlberg and Toren 2006). An increase in development also threatens to reduce habitat and increase air pollution (Peterson et al. 1998, Carlberg and Toren 2006). Climate change is also predicted to create a warmer and drier habitat for S. badia (Peterson et al. 1998, Mote 2003).
Ensuring that populations of this species are not affected by any increasing human residential and agricultural development is essential. It should be listed in the United States as an endangered species. Education and training of land managers and local botanists to identify the species should be conducted, and contracted experts should be hired to conduct detailed monitoring at various time intervals (every 5 to 10 years).
Research on the population size and genetics would greatly enhance our understanding of this species. Long-term monitoring projects need to be conducted. In Washington State, Sulcaria badia
is ranked as SH (possibly extinct) and G3 globally by the Washington Natural Heritage Program (http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/lists/lichens.html). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program (2004) ranks S. badia
as S2 in the state and G2 globally. In California, a rank of S2S3 in the state and G2G3 globally was recommended by Carlberg and Toren (2006).
Source and Citation
McMullin, T., Allen, J. & Lendemer, J. 2019. Sulcaria badia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T80703097A80703100. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T80703097A80703100.en
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