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Lethariella togashii (Asahina) Krog

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Scientific name
Lethariella togashii
(Asahina) Krog
Common names
Летариела Тогаши
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Ohmura, Y., Randlane, T. & Spribille, T.
Scheidegger, C.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/71605769/71605853


Global distribution of Lethariella togashii is limited to only six localities in Japan and Russian Far East, meaning it's true area of occupancy is likely to be well below the threshold for Vulnerable (2,000 km²). In Japan, it has been recorded in Hokkaido (2 locations, extant) and in central Honshu, around Mt. Fuji, but in this area the species has not been found after 1950s, and is considered extinct at present. It is also known from Russia: Sakhalin, Kunashir Isl. and adjacent region in Habarovsk krai (Sikhote-Alin Mts), all 3 locations are extant. The species is treated as a relict from the last glacial period and its distribution area in Japan has declined (Kashidawani & Inoue 2000; Y. Ohmura, pers. comm.). It is also under threat in Russian locations by the destruction of habitats (montane coniferous forests), possibly due to human activities – forest fires and tree cutting (Russia’s Boreal Forests 2007).

Geographic range

The species is known from Japan (Honshu and Hokkaido) and the Far East of Russia (islands Sakhalin and Kunashir, and Sikhote-Alin in Habarovsk region), altogether from 6 localities.

Location records:
1. Japan, central Honshu, Prov. Kai (Yamanashi Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun distr., leg. M. Togashi 11.08.1952 (type; distributed in Lichenes Rariores et Critici Exsiccati 66); by Lake Yamanaka,  Mt. Fuji, leg. M. Togashi 14.07.1953 (H; distributed in Lichenes Japoniae Exsiccati 26).
2. Japan, Hokkaido, Prov. Kushiro, Mt. O-akan (Akan), leg. Y. Ohmura 10.08.2009 (Ohmura 2011). 
3. Japan, Hokkaido, Nemuro (List of endangered lichen species. Lethariella togashii. 2003. http://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/db/botany/chii-e/05/zchii019.htm).
4. Russia, Far East, island Sakhalin (Skirina 2006).
5. Russia, Far East, Habarovsk krai, Sikhote-Aline (Skirina 2006).
6. Russia, Far East, Kurile Isl., Kunashir, leg. A. Ezhkin 2014.

Population and Trends

Lethariella togashii is a very rare species but no detailed assessments of population size and its decline exist. One subpopulation out of six (ca 17%) is considered extinct. Further decline by the destruction of habitats (montane coniferous forests) due to human activities, forest fires and tree cutting, is possible.

Population Trend: decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

On bark of coniferous trees (e.g. Abies, Picea) in coniferous stands in lower elevations (700-1000 m) of mountain forests.


Destruction of habitats (montane coniferous forests), possible due to either human activities or natural causes – forestry (tree cutting) and forest fires.

Conservation Actions

No conservation actions are known. Ecological studies are needed to find out more about the auto- and synecology of the species, which would contribute to the future knowledge about possible threats and relevant conservation measures.

Source and Citation

Ohmura, Y., Randlane, T. & Spribille, T. 2018. Lethariella togashii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T71605769A71605853. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T71605769A71605853.en .Accessed on 31 January 2022

Country occurrence