• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Lethariella intricata (Moris) Krog

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Scientific name
Lethariella intricata
(Moris) Krog
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Olga Nadyeina
Olga Nadyeina
Anders Dahlberg, Olga Nadyeina, Sonia Ravera, Christoph Scheidegger
Comments etc.
Toby Spribille

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes

Evernia intricata (Moris) M. Choisy, Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 104: 334 (1957)
Stereocaulon intricatum Moris, in Webb & Berthelot, Hist. nat. Iles Canar. (Paris) 3(2): 118 (1840)
Usnea intricata (Moris) Th. Fr., Nova Acta R. Soc. Scient. upsal., Ser. 3 2(1): 270 (1858)

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This epiphytic lichen species is distributed at high elevations on Mediterranean mountain systems, relatively close to the sea. This fruticose lichen prefers open habitats and grows on old trees and shribs near the timberline. The species has declined in the eastern part of its distribution area, probably due to general climate aridization. Forest fires and possibly overgrazing are other threats for the species.

A criterium: We may consider the population from Ukraine (which is the most north-eastern boundary of the taxon’ EOO) as RE. This results in a population reduction of 15% in EOO,  and 3% in AOO, hence does not fulfill the criterion A for a threat category.

B criterium: We counted now 36 locations of the species in Mediterranean area. Following IUCN assumption as one location=4km2, the inferred AOO=144km2, and EOO=4835720km2. Therefore the species does not fulfill the sub criteria B1 and B2 (close to EN, populations severely fragmented, but number of location is too high (36), no documented continuing decline, no extreme fluctuations)

C criterium: not applicable at the moment. Need studies where number of trees with species (assumed as one functional individual) will be counted in different populations within the species’ EOO.

D criterium: not applicable at the moment (see C criterion).

E criterium: not applicable, no data.

Conclusion: LC:

Geographic range

Mediterranean region, including Canary Islands and Crimean Peninsula. Species is considering as an old Mediterranean relict (Nimis 2003).

Montenegro: Komovi-Gebirge, on bark, 2006, leg. D. Milošević, GZU (Bilovitz et al. 2008)

Italy (records in the last 30 years): Toscana (Obermayer, 1997; Ravera et al., 2010), Lazio (Ravera, 2006), Molise (Ravera et al., 2010), Sardegna (Nimis and Poelt 1987, Obermayer, 1997; Loi & al. 2000; Zedda & Sipman, 2001; Zedda 2002; Ravera et al., 2010), Campania (Ravera et al., 2010) Basilicata (Obermayer 1997, Potenza 2006), Calabria (Puntillo 1992,1996; Obermayer 1997),  Puglia (Thus & Licht 2006). Only one site hosts fertile samples (Obermayer, 1997; Potenza 2006).

Albania: known from 1926 and 1936 years (SZATALA&TIMKO; 1926, MOTYKA 1936: cit. according to Hafellenr 2007), also recorded in 2012 (Svoboda et al. 2012).

Turkey: western Anatolia (MIES 1992; John 1996).

France: Corsica (Obermayer 1997, Roux 2012)

Spain: Canary Islands (Obermayer 1997); Cadiz, Southern Spain (Rowe & Egea 1987); from Northern to Sounthern Spain (S. Peretz-Ortega, pers. comm.)

Portugal: Sampaio (1922), Tavares (1962).

Greece: Crete at 830 m, 1999, H. Mayrhofer 18073 & E. Baloch (GZU).This species is also known from higher altitudes in the vicinity of the mountain Gingilos above the Samaria Gorge (Grube et al. 2001, Spribille et al. 2006).

Ukraine: Crimea (Blum et al. 2009). Species is known from 1900-1920s years (Yelenkin 1906, Mereschkovsky 1920), 1950-1980 (Kopachevskaia1963, 1986). Later no records were registrated in spite of numerous field observaions (i.e. Vojtsekhovich et al. 2013; A. Khodosovtsev, pers. comm.).

Notheern Morocco: Burgaz et al (2002)

Locality in Sierra-Leone is doubtful (Obermayer 1997).

GBIF data from USA is probably doubtful.

Population and Trends

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

The species with mountain Mediterranean distribution, where its prefer open habitats, very relatively close to the sea, on exposed trees or rocks. Thüs & Lich (2006) supposed its as subokeanic species. Declining in the east part of its AOO, probably due to general climate aridization.

Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation


The forest fire, and, possibly, overgrazing are the main threats for the species. This causes mechanical disturbance of the host tree (e.g. Juniperus) or rock surfaces. Restoration of open forest needed.

Tourism & recreation areas

Conservation Actions

Some of the localities are protected within Reserved areas.

Site/area protectionHabitat & natural process restoration

Research needed

We need to stydy trend for populations of this species in different part of its distributional area. The modelling of the potential areal of this lichen could be helpful to plan an international inventory of its localities. This inventory should be concentrated on both, finding new localities for this species, and checking historical recoreds.

Population size, distribution & trendsThreatsArea-based Management PlanPopulation trends


Bilovitz PO, Knežević B, Stešević D, Vitikainen O, Dragićević S, Mayrhofer H. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro. Fritschiana (Graz) 2008;62:1–44.
Blum, O. B., Kondratyuk, S. Y. & Khodosovtsev, O. Y.(2009) Lichens. In Red Book of Ukraine: Plants (Y. P. Didukh,ed.): 728–780. Kyiv: Globalconsult-ing [In Ukrainian]
Burgaz AR, Aharchi Y, Enabili A 2002: Epiphytic lichens of Cedrus atlantica in the Rif Mountains (N Morocco). - Nova Hedwigia 74(3-4): 429-437. Hafellner J. 2007: Checklist and bibliography of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi so far report ed from Albania (version 05-2007). – Fritschiana 59: 1–18.
John, V. 1996. Preliminary catalogue of lichenized and Iichenicolous fungi of Mediterranean Turkey - Bocconea 6: 173-216.
Loi C., Cani F., Cappai A., Putzolou T., Sandolo G., De Martis B. 2000 Arch. Geobot. (“1998”), 4, 2: 231-241. Licheni e indice di purezza atmosferica (I.A.P.) in alcune foreste a clima mediterraneo della Sardegna meridionale.
Obermayer, W. (1997). Studies on Lethariella with Special Emphasis on the Chemistry of the Subgenus Chlorea:(lichenological Results of the Sino-German Joint Expedition to South-eastern and Eastern Tibet 1994. IV). Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 68, 45-66.
POTENZA G., 2006 – La flora lichenica della Basilicata. Aggiornamento delle conoscenze floristiche ed indagini sulle comunità epifite dell’Appennino Lucano e della Costa Jonica. Tesi di Dottorato, Università della Basilicata.
Puntillo, 1993. Contributi alle conoscenze floristiche sui licheni d’Italia. VI. Florula lichenica dell’alta valle del Fiume Argentino (N Calabria). Webbia 47: 163-186.
PUNTILLO D., 1996 – I licheni di Calabria. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino. Monografia XXII, 296 pp.
RAVERA S., 2006 – Studia Lichenologica in Italia centrale. V. Specie nuove ed interessanti per il Lazio. Not. Soc. Lich. Ital., 19: 72.
Ravera S, Brunialti G, Azara C, Benesperi R (2010). Notulae Cryptogamicae 2 (7-8). Notula 7. Lethariella intricata (Moris) Krog. . INFORMATORE BOTANICO ITALIANO, vol. 42, p. 575-576, ISSN: 0020-0697
Rowe JG, Egea JM 1987: Algunos liquenes silicicolas de la Sierra del Aljibe (Provincia de Cadiz, sur de Espana). - Studia Botanica 6: 89-94.
Roux C. 2012. Liste des lichens et champignons lichénicoles de France. Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, n° spécial 16. 220pp.
SAMPAIO, G. (1922) 1970k. Anais Fac. Sci. Porto 10:158.
Sipman, H. 1986 - (continuously updated): LICHCOL - database of the lichen collection at the Herbarium Berolinense (B).
Svoboda, D., Bouda, F., Malíček, J. & Hafellner, J. 2012. A contribution to the knowledge of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Albania. – Herzogia 25: 149–165.
TAVARES, C.N. 1962b. Inst. Bot. Univ. Olisiponensis 7:4.
Thüs,H.& LichT,W.2006. Oceanic and hygrophytic lichens from the Gargano-Peninsula (Puglia / South-Eastern-Italy). – Herzogia 19: 149–153.
Zedda L. 2002 Englera, 24: 1-457. The epiphytic lichens on Quercus in Sardinia (Italy) and their value as ecological indicators.
Zedda L., Sipman H. 2001 Bocconea, 13: 309-328. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi on Juniperus oxycedrus L. in Campu Su Disterru (Sardinia, Italy).

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted