• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Rubinoboletus rubinus (W.G. Sm.) Pilát & Dermek

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Scientific name
Rubinoboletus rubinus
(W.G. Sm.) Pilát & Dermek
Common names
Рубиноболет рубиновый
rubínovec obyčajný
rubinski ljepljivac
hřib rubínový
Kurzsporiger Röhrling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(i)
Proposed by
Tatyana Svetasheva
Tatyana Svetasheva
Eef Arnolds
Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren, Giampaolo Simonini
Comments etc.
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Tor Erik Brandrud, Anders Dahlberg, Daniel Dvořák, Michael Krikorev, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Vladimír Kunca, Kamil Kędra, Thomas Læssøe, Armin Mešić

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.


Rubinoboletus rubinus is a smalI ectomycorrhizal but conspicuous bolete which is known in the central and south regions of Europe and European Russia, everywhere is very rare. This thermophilous species inhabits open broadleaved forests with old oak trees mostly in the floodplain communities or parklands of river valley, where it form mycorrhiza with Quercus. Usually it produces one-two fruit bodies per site what likely correlates with one functional individual.
Globally about It’s redlisted in 7 countries.
Criteria C2ai - Vu;  Evaluation based on small global population (it’s estimated < 400 known and unknown lolalities, <10000 individuals), habitat decline in area and quality and small number of individuals in each subpopulation. The fragmentation of functional individual can be low according to presence of only single fruitbody in each locality.

Taxonomic notes

Boletus rubinus W.G. Sm. (1868)
Chalciporus rubinus (W.G. Sm.) Singer (1973)
Xerocomus rubinus (W.G. Sm.) A. Pearson (1946)

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

This is European thermophilous species known in the central and south regions of Europe and European Russia.  One Norwegian find from 1975 is regarded as doubtful at the moment.

Population and Trends

For the all time of observation about 75 localities were registered : Italy - 2 localities, Netherlands - 1, UK- 45; Spain - 1; Germany - 3; Slovakia - 6, Croatia -1, Czeck Republic - 10, Austria - 1, Russia - 3 (Volgograd and Penza Oblasts, Mordovia Republic). However most of localities were not confirmed during last 20 years and today is supposed to be about 35-40 (see CBIF), so the species can be considered as declining.  It’s redlisted in 7 countries as Cr, En, Vu species. 

Distribution of R.rubinus was investigated carefully in most countries, hence it’s hardly possible to have many unknown localities.  It is expected not more then 5 times - approx. 400 localities.  Taking in account fragmentation - number of mature individuals is less then 400x2x5 =4000 (supposed low fragmentation)
Habitat loss :  the total area of oak forests in Russia decreased about 20 % from 1966 (1966 - 4,4 млн. га, 1998 - 3,5 млн. га. (Grigorjev et al., 2000)  Evaluation period 50 years = 3 generations (Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011)

Criteria C2ai - Vu;  Evaluation based on small global population (<10000 individuals), habitat decline in area and quality and small number of individuals in each subpopulation . The fragmentation of functional individual can be low according to presence of only single fruitbody in each locality.


Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Rubinoboletus is a symbiothrophic fungus, mycorrhizal with Quercus sp. It inhabits only open broadleaved forests with old oak trees, including floodplain oakeries, parklands of river valleys,  on rich soil often amongst short grass under isolated large trees. Usually it’s found only one-two sporocarps in each site.

Temperate Forest


Loss of habitats due to deforestation and change of management of parklands; habitats degradation due to intensive land use.

Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activities

Conservation Actions

Protection of known localities, monitoring of the state of habitats and populations. Organization of Important Fungal Areas with a high protected status.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

Search of new localities in suitable habitats, clarifying of ecological preferences and threats; determination of the optimal ways of protection.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreatsActionsArea-based Management PlanPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade



Red Data Book of Penza region, 2013. Volume 1. Fungi, Lichens, Mosses, Vascular Plants. Second Edition /Edited by Ivanov A.I. - Penza, Penzian Pravda. 299 p. (in Russian).
Ainsworth, A.M., Smith, J.H., Boddy, L., Dentinger, B.T.M., Jordan, M., Parfitt, D., Rogers, H.J. & Skeates, S.J. (2013). Red List of Fungi for Great Britain: Boletaceae. A pilot conservation assessment based on national database records, fruit body morphology and DNA barcoding. Species Status 14 JNCC Peterborough. 
Assyov, B. & Denchev, C.M. 2010. Conservation of larger basidiomycetes in Bulgaria: the case of Boletus. — Mycologia Balcanica 7: 37–40.
Red Data Book of Russian Federation (plants and fungi), 2008 / Edited by Yu.P.Trutnev et all., compailers R.V.Kamelin et all. Moscow: Association of scientific editions KMK, 855 p. (in Russian)
Muñoz, J.A. 2005. Boletus s. l. – In: Fungi Europaei. Vol. 2, 1–952. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio.
Pilát, A. & Dermek, A. 1974. Hribovité huby. Veda, Bratislava (in Czech).
Kreisel H. Global warming and mycoflora in the Baltic Region. // ACTA MYCOLOGICA Vol. 41 (1): 79-94 2006
Halama M., Szypuła J. The first locality of Chalciporus rubinus (Boletales, Basidiomycota) in Poland. ACTA MYCOLOGICA,Vol. 45 (1): 57–65, 2010
Grigorjev A., Zakharov V., Berlova O..  Forest Bulletin of Russia №16, December, 2000 (In Russian). http://www.pandia.ru/text/77/485/2455.php

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted