• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Hygrocybe colemanniana (A. Bloxam) P.D. Orton & Watling

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Scientific name
Hygrocybe colemanniana
(A. Bloxam) P.D. Orton & Watling
Common names
Toasted Waxcap
Smeđa vlažnica
Bruine wasplaat
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Armin Mešić
Armin Mešić
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Wim Ozinga, Irja Saar

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

According to Lodge & al. (2013) H. colemanniana belongs to the genus Cuphophyllus and the correct name for this taxon is Cuphophyllus colemannianus (A. Bloxam) Ricken.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

It is widespread species in Europe, present in most countries. In Asian part of the Russia it is distributed in the Primorsky Krai of the Far East region (Kovalenko 1989).

Population and Trends

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Cuphophyllus colemannianus occurs in seminatural, nutrient poor and extensively managed grasslands (called Waxcap or CHEGD grasslands), rarely in fixed dunes or forest habitats. It prefers calcareous or basic soil. These grasslands are characterized by extensive grazing (cattle, horses, sheep, deer) or regular mowing and lack of recent fertilizer and pesticide application. In the last few decades, extensively managed grasslands are rapidly declining in Europe due to abandonment of traditional land use, intensification of farming practices, eutrophication and increased use of fertilizers and/or pesticides.

For a long time members of the genus Hygrocybe s. l. were considered as saprotrophs. However, Halbwachs et al. (2018) analysed stable isotopes in fruitbodies of different Hygrocybe species and suggested that these fungi are biotrophic endophytes or possibly mycorrhizal.

Temperate Grassland


Cuphophyllus colemannianus is threatened by habitat loss

Housing & urban areasAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farming

Conservation Actions

Research needed

Use and Trade


Boertmann D (2010). The genus Hygrocybe. Fungi of Northern Europe 1. 2nd revised edition. Danish Mycological Society, Copenhagen.

European Environment Agency (2015). State of nature in the EU. Technical report No 2/2015. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Griffith GW, Gamarra JGP, Holden EM, Mitchel D, Graham A, Evans DA, Evans SE, Aron C, Noordeloos ME, Kirk PM, Smith SLN, Woods RG, Hale AD, Easton GL, Ratkowsky DA, Stevens DP, Halbwachs H (2013) The international conservation importance of Welsh „waxcap‟ grasslands. Mycosphere 4(5): 969–984. https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/4/5/10

Halbwachs H, Easton GL, Bol R, Hobbie EA, Garnett MH, Peršoh D, Dixon L, Ostle N, Karasch P, Griffith GW (2018). Isotopic evidence of biotrophy and unusual nitrogen nutrition in soil-dwelling Hygrophoraceae. Environmental Microbiology 20(10):3573-3588. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14327

Halbwachs H, Karasch P, Griffith GW (2013) The diverse habitats of Hygrocybe – peeking into an enigmatic lifestyle. Mycosphere 4(4): 773–792. https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/4/4/14

Kovalenko AE (1989) Definitorium fungorum URSS. Ordo Hygrophorales. Nauka 37, Leningrad

Lodge DJ, Padamsee M, Matheny PB, Aime MC, Cantrell SA, Boertmann D, Kovalenko A, Vizzini A, Dentinger BTM, Kirk PM, Ainsworth AM, Moncalvo J-M, Vilgalys R, Larsson E, Lücking R, Griffith GW, Smith ME, Norvell LL, Desjardin DE, Redhead SA, Ovrebo CL, Lickey EB, Ercole E, Hughes KW, Courtecuisse R, Young A, Binder M, Minnis AM, Lindner DL, Ortiz-Santana B, Haight J, Læssøe T, Baroni TJ, Geml J, Hattori T (2013). Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales). Fungal Diversity 64:1-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-013-0259-0

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted