R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.
Hygrocybe coccineocrenata, a small fungus with bright colours from orange-red to red, is associated with peatbogs growing usually among Sphagnum spp.. It can be found also in humid grasslands or areas where small patches of Sphagnum are present such as in forests along streams, open heathlands. It is well present in Scandinavian countries, and becomes rare to very rare in southern Europe. Some rare records are in North America, Japan, Korea.
This kind of plant communities where particolar orchids and insectivorous species of conservation interest grows, are endangered by habitat destruction (digging of peat, recreational facilities…), climate change and pollution. Bogs are unique communities that can be destroyed in a matter of days, but require hundreds, if not thousands, of years to form naturally.
For peatbogs we assume a habitat loss and population decline of more than 30% over the past 50 years. This decline is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. In the rare small patches the habitat loss and population decline could be also about 50%. GBIF lists about 850 occurrences globally, and from national databases or biography more sites, about 50, were added. Due to the lack of data, we can say that there could be roughly 1200 known localities.
The species is assumed to have a population decline on the average 30-50% in 50 years due to a decline of habitat and its quality. It is just extinct in Serbia, is redlisted as CR in Croatia, as EN in Germany and Switzerland, VU in Denmark, Netherlands, Poland. The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).
Hygrophorus miniatus var. sphagnophilus Peck,
Hygrophorus miniatus f. sphagnophilus (Peck) Hongo,
Hygrophorus turundus f. sphagnophilus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Hesler,
Hygrophorus turundus var. sphagnophilus (Peck) Hesler & A.H. Sm.,
Hygrocybe turunda var. sphagnophila (Peck)
Hygrocybe coccineocrenata var. sphagnophila (Peck) Arnolds,
Rare conspicuous species associated with peat bogs as one of the most distinctive kind of wetlands and threatened habitats. Endangered by destruction of habitats, climate changes and pollution.
North hemisphere, Europe, North America, Asia. Centre of distribution in Scandinavia.
Common in Finland elsewhere occasional in subarctic and hemiboreal zone, rare in temperate, very rare to the south of Europe. Declining in central and south Europe. Concerning Italy, the small relict areas with Sphagnum of Abetone (northern Apenine) were investigated since the end of the ‘90; 2 of the ten sites are exctinct (in 2007 and 2010 respectively), and in 1 site a decline in fruting was observed.
Rare findings in North America, Japan, Korea.
??Because mires, bogs and fens are wetland habitats with a high water content governing many ecological processes that structure their characteristic communities, their hydrological balance is easily disturbed by increased drainage caused by human activities. Furthermore, mire habitats have been widely destroyed or greatly altered in many areas by the extraction of peat. Extraction of peat and conversion of natural mire habitats to productive agricultural and forestry land have been the main reasons for the decline of mire habitats during recent and more long-term historic times and this decline is still continuing. In the EU countries, all but two of the 13 mire habitat types (85%) are threatened and this is the highest percentage of threatened habitats in all terrestrial and freshwater groups (European Red List of Habitats 2016). These types of habitats are most vulnerable to hydrological system modifications, surface water and air pollution (eutrophication), natural succession and erosion, agriculture intensification, silviculture and forest management, mining (peat extraction) and urbanization. They are also very sensitive to climate change, especially to increasing droughts.
In Europe, large areas of peatland have been drained. According to the recent report by Barthelmes et al. (2015), in the Nordic-Baltic countries, the percentage of drained peatlands amounts to 44.0%, which is a rather low value compared to the total of Europe (almost 60%, Joosten 2009). Moreover, the rather positive picture compared to Europe is, however, attributable to only two countries, Norway and Sweden, in which less than 20% of the peatlands have been drained. Thus, the conservative estimate of the habitat loss for Bovista paludosa probably exceeds 30%; the rareness of this species and its dependence on the continuously declining habitat (both in the area and in quality) imply that B. paludosa population have decreased in a similar range.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Hygrocybe coccineocrenata can be observed in bogs and humid Pinus forests, usually among Sphagnum, or on dried out oligotrophic lake shores, rarely also in humid grassland. These habitats are listed in the EC project “Natura 2000” as worthy of protection because unfavourable bad conservation status: Sphagnum and acid bogs (code 7100) and Aapa mires (code 7320).
From northern Europe towards the Mediterranean, these areas gradually become smaller, less widespread and restricted to montane areas on siliceous rocks. At the southern limit of their distribution these habitats hosting arctic-alpine plants can be seen as glacial relicts. Summer to autmn.
H. coccineocrenata is usually associated with peat bogs as one of the most distinctive kind of wetlands and threatened habitats. Endangered by destruction of habitats, climate changes and pollution. Bogs are unique communities that can be destroyed in a matter of days, but require hundreds, if not thousands, of years to form naturally.
The small relict areas with Sphagnum present at its southern limit of distribution (Italy, Northern Apennine) are threatened not onle by global warming but also by the construction of recreational facilities.
Active measures for the protection of peat bogs are needed, especialy in southern parts of species areal.
For instance most of the peatbogs are protected in Slovakia, but they are not numerous and are slowly disappearing by global warming, overfertilization and lack of pasture or mowing.
Monitoring and mapping of localities in temperate zone
Jan Vesterholt, Henning Knudsen (eds) 2008: Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, Boletoid and Cyphelloid Genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen.
Kovalenko A. 1989: Ordo Hygrophorales. Nauka, Leningrad.
Perini C., Bonini I., Romagnoli P., Antonini D., Antonini M., 2002 - Macrofungi and bryophytes of montane mires (Tuscany, Italy): organisms worthy of conservation. Feddes Repertorium 113 (1-2):152-160.
Tkalčec, Z., Mešić, A., Matočec, N. i Kušan, I. 2008: Crvena knjiga gljiva Hrvatske. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode i Ministarstvo kulture, Zagreb. [Croatian Red Book on Fungi]
Wojewoda W. 2003. Checklist of Polish larger Basidiomycetes. In: Mirek Z. (Ed.). Biodiversity of Poland Vol. 7. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
Wojewoda W., Ławrynowicz M. 2006. Red list of the macrofungi in Poland. (In:) Z. Mirek, K. Zarzycki, W. Wojewoda, Z. Szeląg (Eds). Red list of plants and fungi in Poland. W. Szafer Inst. Bot. Polish Acad. Sci., Krakow.
Zajac, M. & Zajacová, J. 2013. Genus Hygrocybe in Kysuce region, northwestern Slovakia. Catathelasma 15: 27–38.