• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Cortinarius odoratus (M.M. Moser) M.M. Moser

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Scientific name
Cortinarius odoratus
Author
(M.M. Moser) M.M. Moser
Common names
Паутинник душистый
pavučinec sladkovonný
Wohlriechender Klumpfuß
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Cortinariaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(i)
Proposed by
Tommy Knutsson
Assessors
Tommy Knutsson, Tatyana Svetasheva
Editors
Tor Erik Brandrud, Anders Dahlberg
Contributors
Tatyana Svetasheva
Comments etc.
Daniel Dvořák, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Cortinarius odoratus is a very rare European mycorrhiza-species associated mostly with Quercus, Carpinus confined to semi-open, xerothermic broadleaved forests on shallow calcareous soils. At present it’s known in less than 50 localities in Europe and Russia confined to a rare type of calcareus forest habitat. This species is one of typical indicator of “hot-spots” in forest ecosystems always occurring together with other rare and threatened fungi as well as some plant species.
The species is mainly threatened by deforestation and other changes of habitats and traditional land-use, i.e. clear-cutting, replacement of mosaic forests into monoculture of similar-aged stands, abandonment of extensive grazing resulting in semi-open, heterogenic woodlands. The scale of this habitat loss in area and quality is expected to be 15-30% in a 50y timespan including past, present and future.
Preliminary assessment: the species is known from 50 localities in Europe and globally. The total population is estimated about 200 localities what is correlated to ~ 4000 mature individuals (population size <10 000 individuals), and small subpopulations. The estimated continuing decline is 10 % in 3 generation (50 years for ectomycorrhizal fungi). It leads to category Vu under criterion C2a(i)


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

A very rare mycorrhiza-species with broad-leaved trees (Quercus, Carpinus et al.) confined to semi-open, xerothermic broadleaved forests on shallow calcareous soils. Less than 100 known localities in Europe and confined to a rare habitat and a typical species indicating “hot-spots” in forest ecosystems allways occurring together with many other rare and threatened fungi as well as other species.
The species is mainly threatened by deforestation and other changes of land-use, i.e. clear-cutting, replacement of mosaic forests into monoculture of similar-aged stands, abandonment of extensiv grazing and other small-scale disturbances resulting in semi-open, heterogenic woodlands. The scale of this habitat loss in ara and quality is expected to be 15-30% in a 50y timespan incl both past, present and future.


Geographic range

So far mainly known from Western Palearctic with scattered records from South-Central Europe, southern parts of Scandinavia east to Stavropol region (Caucasus) and Penza region.


Population and Trends

In sum about 50 localities are known Sweden (6 localities), Austria (1), Germany (17), Denmark (12), UK (2), Russia (4), France (1), Czech (2), Slovenia (6). Since C.odoratus associates with Quercus, Corylus and Fagus, these types of communities constantly and evidently decrease because of natural and antropogenic reasons (i.e. area of oak forests - about 20% since 1966), we can suppose past and future declining of species.  In Russia C. odoratus is recommended to the federal Red Data Book. At present it included in RDB of Penza Oblast.
It can be estimated in Europe and globally about 200 localities incl. unknown. The number of mature individuals is approx. 4000 and definitely less than 10000. Habitat loss in the past and ongoing >15% (for 3 genetions or 50years for ectomycorrhizal fungi).. 
It can be preliminary assessed to category NT under criterion C1
Evaluation based on small global population (<10.000 individuals), habitat decline in area and quality and small number of individuals in each subpopulation (< 1000).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Ectomycorrhizal fungus growing with deciduous trees (mainly Quercus, Carpinus, Fagus) in continental areas with favourable local climate (warm) on calcareous and shallow soils (e.g. leptosol)

Temperate ForestTemperate Shrubland

Threats

These semi-open natural broad-leaved habitats have been going through dramatic changes last 100y being either 1) Clear-cutting, replacement of mosaic forest types into monoculture of similar-aged stands (i.e. more productive forests of single tree species and/or to more uniform forest structures with less variation) or 2) being abandoned from earlier traditional landuse such as extensive grazing, pollarding and selective small-scale tree-felling resulting in a densification and change in forest structure detrimental to the species.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

In Sweden there is an Action plan for the species (Knutsson 2014). So far its resulted in a great increase in knowledge about ecology, habitats and managment of sites but only very few observations of the species where made. A few of the known localities where affected by logging during the tudy. The actions suggested is mainly focused on area/site protection from logging and restoration of habitats incl. shrub removal, selective tree-felling and reintroduction of cattle to graze the semi-open natural forests.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessSubstitution

Research needed

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

Unknown

Bibliography

Bohlin, K. & Knutsson, T. 2001. Cortinarius odoratus. http://www.artfakta.se/artfaktablad/Cortinarius_Odoratus_1987.pdf.

Dima, Bálint & Albert, László. 2009. Négy ritka Cortinarius faj (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) Magyarországról / Four rare Cortinarius species (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) from Hungary. Mikológiai Közlemények, Clusiana. 48. 133-144.

Rebriev et all., 2012. Mycobiota of arid areas of the South-West of Russia. Rostov-on-Don, Southern Federal University edition. - 88 p. (In Russian) http://www.twirpx.com/file/1588138/
Red Data Book of Penza Oblast, 2013. Vol.1. Fungi, Lichenes, Mosses, Vascular plants. Second edition. Penza. 300 p. (In Russian) https://yadi.sk/d/s-VtGzrSHAAzw

HOLEC J. & BERAN M. [eds.] (2006): Červený seznam hub (makromycetů) České republiky [Red list of fungi (macromycetes) of the Czech Republic]. – Příroda, Praha, 24: 1-282. [in Czech with English summary]

Knutsson, T. 2009. Åtgärdsprogram för svampar i kalkrika ädellövbärande fodermarker. Naturvårdsberket. Link: http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Nerladdningssida/?fileType=pdf&pid=3549&downloadUrl;=/Documents/publikationer/978-91-620-5950-7.pdf

Knutsson, T. 2014. Svampar i kalkrika ädellövmarker på Öland. Länsstyrelsen Kalmar. Link: http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/kalmar/SiteCollectionDocuments/Sv/publikationer/Rapporter/2014/rapp1404svampar_kalkrika_adellovmarker_webb.pdf

Grigorjev A., Zakharov V., Berlova O..  Forest Bulletin of Russia №16, December, 2000 (In Russian). http://www.pandia.ru/text/77/485/2455.php


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted