• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Tyromyces amarus (Hedgc.) J. Lowe

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Scientific name
Tyromyces amarus
Author
(Hedgc.) J. Lowe
Common names
Incense Cedar Polypore
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Polyporaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A1
Proposed by
Else Vellinga
Assessors
Else Vellinga
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg
Comments etc.
Patrick Leacock

Assessment Status Notes

Assessed as Vulnerable under criterion A1 (based on a severe reduction of the host trees of an age that supports fruitbody formation), and C1 (based on an estimated number of mature individuals, and a projected and continuing decline of the available host tree, with a decline of at least 10% over 3 generations (with an average fungal generation of 50 yrs).

Taxonomic notes

The correct name for this species is Postia amara; it is also known as Oligoporus amarus.

The fruitbodies are annual conks, and they decay during the winter.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This fungus causes a brown pocket rot in living Calocedrus decurrens (Incense cedar) trees, and only fruits high up on old (> 200 years) trees. The tree host is restricted to the mountains of Oregon and California (USA) and the fungus is widespread through most of its range but is absent from the drier eastern part of the range. Its fruitbodies are rarely observed and collected, as they are short-lived, and grow high up in the tree. Over-harvesting of old trees, and the drought and consequent wildfires severely threaten the occurrence of mature individuals.


Geographic range

Only occurring in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and Cascade Range in California (USA), and Oregon, within the range of the host tree Calocedrus decurrens (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986), but lacking in the eastern and drier parts of its distribution (Wagener & Bega 1958; Wood 2003).


Population and Trends

Vegetative occurrence is often observed as pocket rots in felled trees, but mature, reproducing specimens are very rare. Mycoportal only lists 12 specimens (mycoportal.org), and there are 5 observations in the last 10 years posted on Mushroom Observer (mushroomobserver.org). The fungus only fruits in mature over 200 year old trees; old-growth forests have become very rare.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

Causing pocket brown rot in living Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar) trees of more than 100 years old (Wood et al. 2003); known to occur in the mountains of Oregon and California, on Calocedrus decurrens, though the tree species is more widely distributed (see http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/caldec/all.html#DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE).
Fruiting high up in trees that are over 200 years old, and trees that are less than 150 years old are in general free of the fungus (Wood et al. 2003).

Temperate Forest

Threats

The species is widespread and is commonly seen as a pocket brown rot in felled tree, but it fruits rarely, as it needs old trees (> 200 years old). Logging of incense cedar (high value timber resource), and habitat loss due to climate change, drought, combined with insect infestations, and forest fires are the main threats.
Incense cedars that are infected by the species loose their commercial value (Boyce 1920), and logging of trees less than 100 years old is practice, which means that the number of old trees that can harbour the mature specimens of the fungus are rare and have become rare because of the logging of old-growth forests.
Forest fires have increased in intensity and scope in the period after 2000 in comparison with the years before that (see e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_California_wildfires), after years of fire suppression (North 2012).
Older trees of incense cedar are increasingly absent, so the occurrence of mature individuals will decrease significantly.

Unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityProblematic native species/diseasesDroughts

Conservation Actions

Restriction of logging of old-growth forests; more forest fire mitigation measures to prevent massive raging wild fires.


Research needed


Use and Trade


Bibliography

Boyce, J.S., 1920. The dry-rot of incense cedar. USDA Bulletin 871 (http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/usda_series/usda_bull871.pdf).
Gilbertson R.L. & L. Ryvarden, 1986. North American Polypores II. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway
North, M., 2012. Managing Sierra Nevada Forests. PSW-GTR 237.
Wagener, W.W. & R.V. Bega, 1958. Heart-rots of Incense Cedar. Forest Pest Leaflet 30.
http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev2_026234.pdf
Wood D.L., T.L. Koerber & R.F. Scharp, 2003. Pests of the native California conifers. University of California Press.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted