This is a species living in an extreme environment. There is unregulated international trade in this species. Levels of trade are not known, but are clearly large and growing. The fungus is also threatened in some places by road and urban development and by the effects of war.
AFRICA: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. ASIA: Azerbaijan, China (Hebei), Cyprus, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, former Soviet Union, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates. ATLANTIC OCEAN: Spain (Islas Canarias). EUROPE: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily), Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey. Perhaps native throughout its recorded range, but at least some records from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia may be market imports from north Africa (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Inconclusive evidence suggests this species may also extend into Mauritania and Western Sahara in the west (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013), and into Oman in the east [www.squ.edu.om/Portals/33/almasar/Horizonnew207.pdf, accessed 3 October 2013]. It seems likely the species also occurs in Egypt and Libya, but no published evidence has been found for this. No information about altitudinal distribution has been found. Records supposedly from Sweden, 19th century (GBIF) and the UK (MASSEE, 1909) are not accepted here.
Over 200 records from scientific sources (specimens, databases and bibliographic sources combined, excluding duplicates) from at least 1845 to April 2010, with observations in January, February, March, April, May, June, August, November and December. Most of the evidence used in the present study derives from collections or market purchases for scientific study. There is almost no information currently available from rural collector-suppliers, or from their commercial buyers about geographical distribution and abundance, and high quality information from such sources is necessary for evaluating threats and conservation status.
Recent interest in commercial possibilities for desert truffles, combined with an increase in recording by a few amateur and professional mycologists has meant a surge of records in southern Europe. This is not, however, evidence for an increase in European populations. There is no information about population levels in north Africa and southwest Asia, the other main areas of distribution of this species.
Using IUCN Categories & Criteria, MINTER (2013) evaluated this species globally as vulnerable.
Population Trend: Deteriorating
This species forms mycorrhizas with a range of flowering plants. AL-WHAIBI (2009) provided a general review of desert plants and mycorrhizas. FORTAS & CHEVALLIER (1992a) showed that in Algeria this fungus forms two different types of mycorrhiza with Tuberaria guttata (as Helianthemum guttatum), depending on soil fertility: ectomycorrhizas in phosphorus rich substrata, and ectendomycorrhizas in phosphorus deficient substrata. In Spain, “turmerieri” (based on a vernacular name for this fungus) is the word used for ecosystems where the Cistaceae are prominent (LAZARO IBIZA, 1908), and in Andalucía in particular, the plant Xolantha guttata (which is a mycorrhizal associate of T. arenaria) is well known to some rural people as an indicator of this fungus, and has the vernacular names “hierba turmera”, “madre de la criadilla” which reflect that association (MORENO ARROYO ET AL., 2005). Terfezia arenaria prefers calcareous soils, where T. claveryi Chatin prefers acid soils (HONRUBIA ET AL., 1992). It has been observed in the company of Tuber gennadii and Tuber lacunosum (ALVARADO ET AL., 2012). No records have been found of associations with other fungi, or of interactions with animals, but these are highly likely to occur: Terfezia boudieri Chatin and T. claveryi Chatin, for example, are each known to be associated with at least 20 other fungal species growing in and around their ascomata. Species of Terfezia and Tirmania need a certain minimum amount of precipitation in a given year before they produce ascomata. In Kuwait, that minimum was reported to be 180 mm well distributed from October through to March (AWAMAH & ALSHEIKH, 1979). Terfezia arenaria has been been recorded from the following habitats: amenity & protected areas (national parks); coastal (maritime sands); desert (arid scrub, dunes, semi-desert); grassland; woodland (eucalyptus plantations, pine woodland).
Associated organisms. Fungi. Tuber gennadii (Chatin) Pat., T. lacunosum Mattir. Plantae. Cistus ladanifer L. (mycorrhizal), C. monspeliensis L. (mycorrhizal), C. salvifolius L. (mycorrhizal); Eucalyptus sp.; Helianthemum sessiliflorum (Desf.) Pers. (mycorrhizal); Pinus edulis Engelm., P. pinaster Aiton, Pinus sp.; Quercus coccifera L., Q. robur L.; Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr. [also as Helianthemum guttatum (L.) P. Mill. and Xolantha guttata (L.) Raf.] (mycorrhizal).
In conservation terms, species of Terfezia are iconic and have the potential to be flagship species: T. arenaria was one of several illustrated on postage stamps of Algeria in 1983 (MOSS & DUNKLEY, 1988). This and other species of Terfezia and Tirmania are of great interest in ethnomycology. As one of the few readily available foods in the deserts of north Africa and southwest Asia, a body of folklore has built up round them, including several citations in Islamic and Jewish religious texts. There have, for example, been many suggestions that they were the “manna” which the bible says was gathered by the Israelites during their time in the desert (PEGLER, 2002). Desert truffles of the genera Terfezia and Tirmania have particular religious significance in Islam. In three of the hadiths (traditional reports of the sayings and deeds of Muhammed the Prophet which form an important corpus on which much Islamic law is based), Muhammed is reported to have defined desert truffles as a type of “manna” (gift from God), and described their medicinal properties for diseases of the eyes [http://islamicstudies.islammessage.com/ResearchPaper.aspx?aid=1429]. On YouTube [an Internet resource] there are many sermons by influential Islamic clerics discussing these hadiths in detail, usually in Arabic, but occasionally with English subtitles [e.g. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88G-MoWEFzE]. Much of the Arabic language Internet coverage of these species concentrates on interpretation of these texts (G. SOLIMAN, pers.comm.), and this species is cited in connexion with mediaeval Islamic dental care (RISPLER-CHAIM, 1992). On seeing potatoes for the first time, some early Spanish explorers of the Americas mistook them for Terfezia ascomata.
This fungus is of economic importance in a variety of ways. Collecting from the wild is unregulated.
Medical, medicinal and cosmetic uses. A US patent application lists T. arenaria as one of several hypogeous species used in a treatment for senile cataracts (MORGAN, 2011). Because of its antioxidant properties, inclusion of this species in the “plant” [sic] component of a balanced diet may reduce some cancer risks (KAPISZEWSKA, 2006). An in vitro study using aqueous extracts of this fungus, however, found no evidence of antibacterial activity (GOUZI ET AL., 2011). Polyphenol oxidase, which has many applications in medicine and food processing, has been extracted from T. arenaria [as T. leonis] (GOUZI ET AL., 2013a), and an optical biosensor for dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in several serious medical conditions, has been developed using these extracts (GOUZI ET AL., 2013b). This fungus has been cited in a patent application as an optional ingredient of a cosmetic preparation (GOLZ-BERNER & ZASTROW, 2005).
As food. This species is widely collected and eaten or sold as food in many parts of north Africa and southwestern Asia, being usually the main desert truffle to be used in this way. It has a long history of culinary use dating back well over 2300 years, and is highly prized for its culinary qualities: a popular account with information about some ways in which it can be prepared was provided by LOIZIDES ET AL. (2012). There is a significant and international on-line trade in these fungi. Ascomata of Terfezia and Tirmania not identified to species level are collectively marketed on the Internet as “desert truffles”, and commercial websites exist offering them for sale. On one site the price was €35-75 per kilogram with a minimum order of 100 kilograms and a claim by the vendor that 1000 kilograms per day could be supplied [www.alibaba.com/showroom/fresh-desert-truffles.html, accessed 29 October 2013]. The trade is secretive, with no easy access to addresses, and at most only very general information about the sources of the product. The English language websites are likely to be only a small part of the total market, and much of the trade and negotiations now seems to be conducted in Arabic through social networking sites like Facebook (G. SOLIMAN, pers.comm.).
In Spain, this fungus has been recognized as a food since at least the early seventeenth century (CIENFUEGOS, 1626-1631; MENÉNDEZ DE LUARCA & TARDÍO PATO, 2005) and is now commercially collected and sold locally as food in several parts of the country (DE ROMÁN & BOA, 2004). The possibility of developing recreational collection of this and other species in Spain as an aid to revival of rural economies has been explored (GARCÍA, 2008). Ecotourism holidays in Morocco, learning how to find, collect and cook this species are advertized on the Internet [for example, http://www.sejours-maroc.org/morocco/terfezia-moroccan-desert-truffles-22.html, accessed 30 September 2013]. Accumulation of radionucleotides by this species is therefore a concern (GUILLÉN GERADA, 2002). Ascomata are collected and eaten boiled or roasted in Sicily (VENTURELLA & SAITTA, 2003). A detailed analysis of prospects for commercial use of this species in Portugal was provided by GRAVITO HENRIQUES (2012a) and GRAVITO HENRIQUES (2012b). The nutritional value of the fungus has been assessed (MORENO-ROJAS ET AL., 2005), but the economic benefit of these activities seems never to have been formally evaluated.
In addition to unregulated collecting, this species faces other threats.
Living in the difficult environment of dry deserts, this species is adapted to survive at levels of heat and water stress which would be very unfavourable for other fungi. As a result, it already lives in conditions near the limit for sustainable life. Climate change and global warming in particular are likely to be significant long-term threats. Deserts are ecosystems on which humans tend to place little monetary value. Habitat destruction through war, irrigation, development of recreational facilities such as golf courses, disturbance of soil (for example by tourist safaris using 4-wheel drive vehicles), construction of solar energy facilities, establishment of refugee camps, and similar developments are all likely to threaten the ecosystems where this fungus occurs. MOUBASHER (2010) reported that, in Egypt, of the two main areas known for desert truffles, one on the Mediterranean coast west of Alexandria was being destroyed by construction of factories, recreational areas, retirement homes, roads, tourist villages and similar developments, while the other, in the Sinai Peninsula was seriously disturbed by military activities. ALSHEIKH (1989) reviewed the serious and damaging impact of war on desert truffle populations in Kuwait in the 1990s, and in other parts of southwest Asia and north Africa during the 20th century. In many areas where this species occurs, social upheaval and war continue. Paradoxically, the civil unrest experienced in many countries where this fungus occurs may help to protect it: the possibility of encountering landmines is likely to deter many collectors (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Pollution is also sometimes a serious threat. The firing of Kuwait oil wells as an act of war in 1991 affected populations of desert truffles over a wide area (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Nothing is known about the effect of oil pollution in soils on these fungi, but it is likely to be long-term. Ascomata of T. arenaria are known to accumulate radionucleotides (GUILLÉN GERADA, 2002), but the impact of this on the species is not known. Formerly, harvesting of this species as a wild crop was carried out by rural populations for sustainable local consumption, but in the past twenty years there has been a significant increase in commercial harvesting in connexion with international trade,and the impact of this has never been evaluated, although there are reports that harvesting by refugees as their sole form of income is having a negative impact on populations (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013). There has been considerable interest in the possibility of cultivating desert truffles. If that happens, there will be the danger that a few genotypes favourable to cultivation will be used, and these may swamp the wild populations resulting in a loss of genetic diversity. At a local level, GRAVITO HENRIQUES (2012a) listed various threats including overgrazing, trampling, and encroachment of scrub.
Awareness of the importance of these desert truffles is very low even at governmental level: a survey of the most recent relevant national action plans and reports for the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity [www.cbd.int/nbsap/search/default.shtml, accessed 4 October 2013] by Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates (all countries from which species of Terfezia have been recorded) showed that only Morocco and Saudi Arabia had any conservation plans. Both of these countries recognized that there might be a problem of over-exploitation; Saudi Arabia also described this species as of high conservation priority, and expressed concern about unregulated harvesting and damage by off-road use of vehicles. There is a need to raise awareness about the conservation needs of this species with appropriate authorities in the countries in which it occurs.
ABDELKRIM, E.L., TOUHAMI, A.O., ZIDANE, L., FENNANE, M. & DOUIRA, A. Inventaire des spécimens fongiques de l’Herbier National de l’Institut Scientifique de Rabat. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique Rabat 25: 1-23 (2003). ALSHEIKH, A.M. Taxonomy and Mycorrhizal Ecology of the Desert Truffles in the Genus Terfezia. Oregon State University, PhD Thesis, 239 pp. (1995). ALVARADO, P., MORENO, G. & MANJÓN, J.L. Comparison between Tuber gennadii and T. oligospermum lineages reveals the existence of the new species T. cistophilum (Tuberaceae, Pezizales). Mycologia 104 (4): 894-910 (2012). ÁLVAREZ, I.F., PARLADÉ, J., TRAPPE, J.M. & CASTELLANO, M.A. Hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi of Spain. Mycotaxon 47: 201-217 (1993). AL-WHAIBI, M.H. Desert plants and mycorrhizae (a mini-review). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 3 (2): 457-466 (2009). AWAMAH, M.S. & ALSHEIKH, A. Laboratory and field study of four kinds of truffle (kamah), Terfezia and Tirmania species, for cultivation. Mushroom Science 10: 507-517 (1979). CALONGE, F.D. DE, DE LA TORRE, M. & ŁAWRYNOWICZ, M. Contribución al estudio de los hongos hipogeos de España. Anales del Instituto Botánico Cavanilles 34 (1): 15-31 (1977). CALONGE, F.D. DE, ROCABRUNA I LLAVANERA, A., TABARÉS CARRIEDO, M., & RODRÍGUEZ, N.B. Nuevos datos sobre los hongos hipogeos de España. II. Géneros Balsamia, Delastria y Genea, novedades para el catálogo español. Butlletí / Revista Catalana de Micologia 9: 57-64 (1985). CIENFUEGOS, B. Historia de Yerbas y Plantas. Unpublished manuscript: mss. 3.357-3.363, Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid (1626-1631). DE NATALE, A. & MARZIANO, F. Note di etnomicologia per il territorio di Catania (Sicilia), in un manoscritto inedito di Fridiano Cavara. Micologia Italiana 38 (3): 51-60 (2009). DE ROMÁN, M. & BOA, E. Collection, marketing and cultivation of edible fungi in Spain. Micologia Aplicada International 16 (2) 25-33 (2004). DÍEZ, J., MANJÓN, J.L. & MARTIN, F. Molecular phylogeny of the mycorrhizal desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania), host specificity and edaphic tolerance. Mycologia 94 (2): 247-259 (2002). DJELLOUL, R. Knowledge of hypogeous mushrooms of north-east Algeria (the case of Terfezia arenaria). Pagine di Micologia 27: 65-67, 44 (2007). FORTAS, Z. & CHEVALIER, G. Effect of culture condition on the mycorrhization of Helianthemum guttatum by 3 species of truffles of the genera Terfezia and Tirmania from Algeria. Canadian Journal of Botany 70 (12): 2453-2460 (1992a). FORTAS, Z. & CHEVALIER, G. Characteristics of ascospore germination of Terfezia arenaria (Moris) Trappe originating from Algeria. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 13 (1): 21-29 (1992b). GARCÍA, A.L. El aprovechamiento micológico como vía de desarrollo rural en España: las facetas comercial y recreativa. Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense 28 (2): 111-136 (2008). GOLZ-BERNER, K. & ZASTROW, L. U.S. Patent No. 6,843,995. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office filed 18 January 2005 (2005). GONZÁLEZ, I.G. Los hongos: otros recursos del bosque y su interés de conservación. Recursos Rurais 2: 45-50 (2005). GOUZI, H., BELYAGOUBI, L., ABDELALI, K.N. & KHELIFI, A. In vitro antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts from Algerian desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania, ascomycetes) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 13 (6): 553-558 (2011). GOUZI, H., DEPAGNE, C., BENMANSOUR, A. & CORADIN, T. First extraction of polyphenol oxidase from edible desert truffle (Terfezia leonis Tul.) and its thermal behavior. European Food Research and Technology 1-9 (2013a). [DOI 10.1007/s00217-013-2040-8] GOUZI, H., MOREAU, T., DEPAGNE, C. & CORADIN, T. Immobilization of a polyphenol oxidase extract from Terfezia leonis Tul. desert truffle in multilayered silica films for dopamine biosensing. Silicon 1-6 (2013b). [DOI 10.1007/s12633-013-9165-z] GRAVITO HENRIQUES, J.L. Avaliação da Produção de Criadilhas (Terfezia spp.) na Área do Campo Albicastrense (Monte Fidalgo - Castelo Branco). Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território Direcção Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Centro Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pescas Divisão de Produção Agricola e Pescas, Fundão 42 pp. (2012a). [www.drapc.min-agricultura.pt/base/documentos/producao_criadilhas_gravito_2012.pdf, accessed 30 September 2013] GRAVITO HENRIQUES, J.L. Caractericação da Campanha de Produção de Cogumelos Silvestres de Primavera do Ano de 2011, na Beira Interior. Contributo para o Conhecimento da Realidade Micoógica da Região Centro. Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território Direcção Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Centro Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pescas Divisão de Produção Agricola e Pescas, Fundão 42 pp. (2012b). [www.drapc.min-agricultura.pt/base/geral/files/Gravito_caracterizacao_micologica_bi_L2011.pdf, accessed 30 September 2013] GUILLÉN GERADA, Estudio de la Transferencia de la Contaminación Radiactiva a los Hongos. PhD Thesis, Universidad de Extremadura, 278 pp. (2002) HAWKER, L.E. British hypogeous fungi. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 237: 429-546, 29 figs (1954). HONRUBIA, M., CANO, A. & MOLINA-NIÑIROLA, C. Hypogeous fungi from southern Spanish semi-arid land. Persoonia 14 (4): 647-653 (1992). IZZAT, I., PENARANDA, F., ROBERT, M. & POLONOVSKI, M. [Research on the composition of the truffle (Terfezia leonis)]. Bulletin de la Société de Chimie Biologique 35 (3-4): 266 (1953). KAGAN-ZUR, V., RAVEH, E., LISCHINSKY, S. & ROTH-BEJERANO, N. Initial association between Helianthemum and Terfezia is enhanced by low iron in the growth medium. New Phytologist 127 (3): 567-570 (1994). KAPISZEWSKA, M. A vegetable to meat consumption ratio as a relevant factor determining cancer preventive diet. In M. HEINRICH, W.E. MÜLLER & C. GALLI [eds] Local Mediterranean Food Plants and Nutraceuticals. Forum of Nutrition 59: 130-153. Basel, Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers (2006). KHABAR, L. Études Pluridisciplinaires des Truffes du Maroc et Perspectives pour l’Amélioration de Production des “Terfess” de la Forêt de la Mamora. PhD Thesis, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat (2002). KHABAR, L., NAJIM, L., JANEX-FAVRE, M.C. & PARGUEY-LEDUC, A. L’ascocarpe de Terfezia leonis Tul. (discomycètes, tubérales). Cryptogamie, Mycologie 15 (3): 187-206 (1994). KHABAR, L., NAJIM, L., JANEX-FAVRE, M.C. & PARGUEY-LEDUC, A.P. Contribution to the study of the mycological flora of Morocco. The Moroccan truffles (Discomycetes). Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 117 (3): 213-229 (2001). KOVÁCS, G.M., BALÁZS, T.K., CALONGE, F.D. DE & MARTÍN, M.P. The diversity of Terfezia desert truffles: new species and a highly variable species complex with intrasporocarpic nrDNA ITS heterogeneity. Mycologia 103 (4): 841-853 (2011). LÆSSØE, T. & HANSEN, K. Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales? Mycological Research 111 (9): 1075-1099 (2007). LAZARO IBIZA, B. Nuevas tuberaceas de España. Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias de Madrid 6: 801-826 (1908). LENTINI, F. & VENTA, F. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3: 15 [12 pp., DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-15] (2007). LOIZIDES, M., HOBART, C., KONSTANDINIDES, G. & YIANGOU, Y. Desert truffles: the mysterious jewels of antiquity. Field Mycology 13 (1): 17-21 (2012). MALENÇON, G. Champignons hypogés du nord de l’Afrique - 1 Ascomycètes. Persoonia 7 (2): 261-279 (1973). MASSEE, G. The structure and affinities of British Tuberaceae. Annals of Botany 23 (2): 243-264 (1909). MENÉNDEZ DE LUARCA, L.R.L. & TARDÍO PATO, F.J. Productos vegetales utilizados en Madrid entre los siglos XIV y XIX. Asclepio 57 (2): 25-44 (2005). MINTER, D.W. Terfezia arenaria. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1976 (2013). MORENO ARROYO, B., GÓMEZ FERNÁNDEZ, J. & PULIDO CALMAESTRA, E. Tesoros de Nuestros Montes. Trufas de Andalucia. Consejería de Media Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, Córdoba, 352 pp. (2005). MORENO-ROJAS, R., BENAJIBA, N., DÍAZ-VALVERDE, M.A., AMARO LÓPEZ, M.A., ARROYO, M. & SABAU, D. Study of metal content in mushroom Terfezia arenaria: nutritional and toxicological evaluation. Buletinul Universităţii de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Cluj-Napoca Seria Medicină Veterinară 62: 646 (2005). MORGAN, A. Use of Extracts of Pezizaceae in the Prevention and/or Treatment of Senile Cataracts. U.S. Patent Application 13/205,693, filed August 9, 2011 (2011). MOSS, M.O. & DUNKLEY, I.P. Recent issues of postage stamps depicting fungi. Mycologist 2 (3): 116-121 (1988). MOUBASHER, A.H. Endangered desert truffles in Egypt and neighbouring Arab countries, with further notes on their distribution. Mycologia Balcanica 7 (1): 59-64 (2010). NORMAN, J.E. & EGGER, K.N. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Peziza and related genera. Mycologia 91 (5): 820-829 (1999). PACIONI, G., FRIZZI, G., MIRANDA, M. & EL-KHOLY, H.K. Allozyme characterization of some terfeziaceous fungi (Pezizales, Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 61: 427-432 (1997). PEGLER, D.N. Useful Fungi of the World: the ‘Poor man’s truffles of Arabia’ and ‘Manna of the Israelites’. Mycologist 16 (1): 8-9 (2002). PIROTTA, R. & ALBINI, A. Osservazioni sulla biologia del tartufo giallo (Terfezia leonis Tul.). Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Rendiconti Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali 9: 4-8 (1900). RISPLER-CHAIM, V. The siwāk: a mediaeval Islamic contribution to dental care. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1): 13-22 (1992). ROTH‐BEJERANO, N., LIVNE, D. & KAGAN‐ZUR, V. Helianthemum-Terfezia relations in different growth media. New Phytologist 114 (2): 235-238 (1990). SEYIDOVA, H. & HÜSAYIN, E. Macrofungi of Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan) Autonomous Republic. Turkish Journal of Botany 36 (6): 761-768 (2012). TENG, S.C. Fungi of China. Ithaca, New York, Mycotaxon Ltd, 586 pp. (1996). TORRES, P., HONRUBIA, M. & DIAZ, G. Notas sobre Ascomycotina en el S.E. de España peninsulár IV. Nuevas citas de discomicetos saprófitos. International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology 3: 319-335 (1988). TRAPPE, J.M., CLARIDGE, A.W., ARORA, D. & SMIT, W.A. Desert truffles of the Kalahari: ecology, ethnomycology and taxonomy. Economic Botany 62 (3): 521-529 (2008). VELASCO, J.M., MARTÍN, A. & GONZÁLEZ, A. Los nombres comunes y vernáculos castellanos de las setas: micoverna - I. Primera recopilación realizada a partir de literatura micológica e informantes. Boletín. Micológico FAMCAL 6: 155-216 (2011). VENTURELLA, G. & SAITTA, A. The traditional use of fungi in Sicily, Italy. Delpinoa 45: 105-108 (2003). VENTURELLA, G., SAITTA, A., SARASINI, M., MONTECCHI, A. & GORI, L. Contribution to the knowledge of hypogeous fungi from Sicily (S-Italy). Flora Mediterranea 14: 275-284 (2004). VOLPATO, G., ROSSI, D. & DENTONI, D. A reward for patience and suffering: ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara. Economic Botany 20: 1-14 (2013).