- Scientific name
- Sarcodon leucopus
- (Pers.) Maas Geest. & Nannf.
- Common names
- Plompe stekelzwam
- lošák hladký
- Glatter Braunsporstacheling
- jelenkovec hladký
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- Arnolds, E., Gonçalves, S.C., Brandrud, T.-E. & von Bonsdorff, T.
- Saar, I.
is a conspicous ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with pine on calcareous soil. It has a wide distribution in Europe, but it is rare everywhere, with a fragmented distribution area. It is reported to be extinct in some countries in Western and Central Europe, due to sensitivity to nitrogen deposition (Arnolds 2003). In Northern Europe it is mainly threatened by cutting of old-growth pine stands and quarrying (Nitare 2006, Brandrud 2009).
This habitat decrease rate is estimated to exceed 30% (30-50%) during the past 50 years (three generations). The decline is ongoing and projected to continue. In North America, the population and habitat trend is not known but it is assumed to be smaller than in Europe. Overall, a population decline of S. leucopus
between 15-30% is suspected. The species is therefore assessed as NT (A2c + 3c + 4c).
is distributed in Europe, Japan, Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Kray) and North-America (including Mexico); with the largest subpopulations in Scandinavia, including Iceland.
Population and Trends
Sarcodon leucopus is rare and occurs on isolated localities throughout its distribution area. A strong decline has been reported from many regions and it is included in many National Red Lists: Extinct in the Netherlands (1849), Belgium (1882), Baden-Württemberg (1977); Critically Endangered in Czech Republic, France, Germany; Endangered in Sweden and Switzerland; Vulnerable in Finland; Near threatened in Norway. The species is unknown from Great Britain. In Japan two records are known from Hokkaido. Norway is the centre of its global distribution with 120 known localities, mainly in NW Norway (Henriksen and Hilmo 2015). In Sweden it is known from 50 sites, in Europe alltogether approx. 250 sites are known (based on GBIF 2019 and national sources). The species is known from a couple of localities in Siberia and Japan and from approx. 10 localities in North America (including Mexico). From this the global number of localities is estimated to be approx. 2,200, according to standards (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011), this equals to approx. 44,000 mature individuals.
The habitat of S. leucopus in Europe is declining, with a decrease rate estimated to exceed 30% (30-50%) during the past 50 years (three generations). According to forest statistics the decline of old pine forests in Scandinavia is of approximately 1% on an annual basis (Svensson et al. 2019). Based on this habitat decline both in area and quality, it is suspected a population decline of the same magnitude in Europe. The decline is ongoing and projected to continue. In North America, the population and habitat trend is not known but it is assumed to be smaller than in Europe.
Overall, a population decline of S. leucopus between 15-30% is suspected.
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is an ectomycorrhizal fungus of Pinus sylvestris
in old, often open coniferous forests on very dry to mesic, base-rich to calcareous soils, often on thin soils above bedrock (Nitare 2006, Brandrud 2009). In Central Europe, the species mainly has a montane to subalpine distribution (Breitenbach and Kranzlin 1986, Krieglsteiner 2000). In Norway, S. leucopus
is especially found in forests above olivine/serpentine rocks, a habitat strongly threatened by quarrying (Brandrud 2009).
In the northern European countries, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the species is mainly threatened by logging of old-growth pine forests, more locally also by quarrying for olivine (Henriksen and Hilmo 2015, Artdatabanken 2015, Brandrud and Bendiksen 2018). The potential old-growth Scots pine habitat of Sarcodon leucopus
is estimated to have been and to continue to be reducing by about 1% per year based on forest statistics (Svensson et al.
In Western and Central Europe Sarcodon leucopus
is threatened also by nitrogen deposition (Arnolds 1989). The critical nitrogen load for this species is estimated at less than 15 kg N/ha/yr; a value exceeded now in almost entire Western and Central Europe, where the species has apparently disappeared almost completely.
Protection of old pine forests on base-rich mineral soils against clear-cutting and quarrying activities. Reduction of air pollution by limitation of nitrogen deposition by agriculture, traffic and industry. Research needed:
Research on the populations size and trends in North America, Japan and Siberia needed; as well as for the more documentation on the decline of the species in areas with eutrophication.
Use and Trade
The use is not known.
Source and Citation
Arnolds, E., Gonçalves, S.C., Brandrud, T.-E. & von Bonsdorff, T. 2019. Sarcodon leucopus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T75124883A75124951. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T75124883A75124951.en
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