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  • Under Assessment
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Ramaria verlotensis Marr & D.E. Stuntz

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Scientific name
Ramaria verlotensis
Author
Marr & D.E. Stuntz
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Gomphales
Family
Gomphaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A2c C2ai
Proposed by
Noah Siegel
Assessors
Noah Siegel
Reviewers
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

Justification

Ramaria verlotensis is a rare ectomycorrhizal fungus, endemic to the Pacific Northwest of North America and restricted to old-growth mature conifer forests. Despite extensive survey efforts under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1998, it is only know from 4 sites. The old growth mature forest habitat has become very rare due to timber logging during the last century, and the habitat is assessed as still declining.

(>60% population reduction in the past 100 years; i.e. two generations, based on >90% loss of old growth forest). All the sites where this species occurs contain considerably less than 250 mature individuals, and though the present sites are protected, the future of the habitat is insecure. It is assessed as Endangered (EN) under criteria A2c, and C2a(i).


Taxonomic notes

Described by Marr and Stuntz in 1973, based on a collection made in 1969 from the North Cascades in Washington, USA. 


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Ramaria verlotensis is a rare ectomycorrhizal fungus, endemic to the Pacific Northwest of North America and restricted to old-growth mature conifer forests. Despite extensive survey efforts under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1998, it is only know from 4 sites.


Geographic range

Only known from four disjunct populations in North Western USA. Two are from the Cascade range in Washington, a site in the Rocky Mountains in Idaho, and a site on the far northern coast of California.


Population and Trends

Ramaria verlotensis is a rare fungus, endemic to the Pacific Northwest of North America. It is characteristic for old-growth mature forests where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Abies spp., Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla. It is only know from 4 sites.  This species is a very rare and have been extensively searched for under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1998 (Castellano et al. 1999); despite these intensive survey efforts, the number of known sites has not increased. Described from a collection made in 1967 from the North Cascades in Washington, a single collection made in Idaho in 1982, and a single collection from northern California was reported (Castellano et al. 1999). It has also been found at Mount Rainier (Efren Cazares, personal communication). It is confined to for old-growth mature conifer forests. The old growth mature forest habitat has become very rare due to timber logging during the last century, and the habitat is assessed as still declining. The population of R. verlotensis is estimated to have been reduced by >60% in the past 100 years based on >90% loss of old growth forest. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are assessed during 50 years (corresponding to three generations (Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011). The decline of R. verlotensis during the last 50 years is estimated to exceed 30% and to be ongoing at a lower rate. The total number of locations,considering unrecorded ones, is not considered to exceed 100 and the total number of mature individuals to be less than 2500 mature individuals. Though the present known sites are protected, unrecorded the future of unrecorded localities and the habitat is insecure.

Population Trend: Uncertain


Habitat and Ecology

It is an ectomycorrhizal terrestrial fungus confined to old-growth mature forests where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Abies spp., Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia is perennial and may live for several decades and potentially much more than a century with a continuous presence of living trees and presence of an old-growth habitat.

Temperate Forest

Threats

This is a ectomycorrhizal fungus species dependent on living host trees for viability. The major threat to this species and its co-occurring co-generic brethren is habitat destruction, viz. the logging of old-growth forests to which it is confined. The extent of old growth forest in the Pacific Northwest of North America has declined 90% in the last century (Society of American Foresters 1984, Haynes 1986).

Logging & wood harvesting

Conservation Actions

Habitat protection: the type location is an old campground, with recreation activities in the area. Two sites (Mount Rainier, WA and Jedediah Smith State Park, CA) are protected in National and State parks. The exact location of the Idaho site is unknown. Any new sites should be protected from logging and other disturbances. This species is a so-called Strategy 1 species under the Northwest Forest Plan (Castellano et al. 1999), and has been surveyed and managed within the range of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina).

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

All known locations should be revisited to see if they still have existing populations of this species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known. Similar Ramaria are edible and are collected for consumption.


Bibliography

Castellano, M., J. E. Smith, T. O’Dell, E. Cázares & S. Nugent. 1999. Handbook to Strategy 1 Fungal Species in the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-476. United States Department of Agriculture.

Exeter, R., L. Norvell & E. Cázares. 2006. Ramaria of the Pacific Northwestern United States. USDI BLM/OR/WA/PT-06/050-1792, Salem, OR.

Haynes, T.W. 1986. Inventory and value of old-growth in the Douglas-fir region. PNW-RN 437. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

Marr, C.D. & D. Stuntz. 1973. Ramaria in western Washington. Biblioth. Mycol. 38: 1-232.

MyCoPortal. Mycology Collections Portal. Available at: http://mycoportal.org

Society of American Foresters. 1984. Scheduling the harvest of old growth : Old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest : a position of the Society of American Foresters and Report of the SAF Task Force on Scheduling the Harvest of Old-Growth Timber. . Bethesda, MD.

Vellinga, E. 2017. Phaeocollybia oregonensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T75118122A75118153. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T75118122A75118153.en. Downloaded on 21 February 2018.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted