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Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán

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Scientific name
Psilocybe banderillensis
Author
Guzmán
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Strophariaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c
Proposed by
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Assessors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Editors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Contributors
Roberto Garibay Orijel
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

This species is only known from two subpopulations, one located in the vicinity of the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, in a protected area in the suburbs of the city, and the other located in a suburban area in the state of Oaxaca, where human activities as farming and cattle rising are common.
Both subpopulations are located in patches of mountain cloud forest. This vegetation type represents only 1% of the forest in Mexico, and is heavily fragmented, also it is predicted to decline by 68% over the next 60 years, because of the effect of climate change (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012).
Considering that several monographic treatments have been published for this genus, at global and local scales (Guzman 1983, 1995; Guzman et al. 1999; Ramirez-Cruz 2010), the two know subpopulations are considered to depitc is rarity and its true distribution range.

Justification

This is a rare species with restricted distribution range and an association with Mountain Cloud Forest.
Based on climate change models, mountain could forest in Mexico is estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), this will represent a decline in the extent and quality of the habitat larger than 50% over three generations (about 50 years). Thus the species should be listed as Endangered, supported in criteria A3c.


Taxonomic notes

Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán, Nova Hedwigia 29(3-4): 642 (1978)

This species was described in 1978 from the State of Veracruz, Mexico. The species has not synonyms, either taxonomic or nomenclatural. There is no phylogenetic information, or DNA sequences, for this species, but Guzman et al. (2005) mention it as closely related with P. neoxalapensis, a species which has been phylogenetically confirmed as part of Psilocybe sensu stricto (Ramirez-Cruz et al. 2013).
The variety Psilocybe banderillensis var. paulensis Guzmán & Bononi is now considered as an independent species, Psilocybe paulensis (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán, Biblthca Mycol. 159: 111 (1995).
1978. Figs. 21-25
Following description is reproduced from Guzman et al. (2005): “This species is characterized by its common pleurocystidia, 16-30 × 8-14 μm, subfusiform, sublageniform, or subventricose, capitate or subcapitate, hyaline or subhyaline to brownish or reddish yellow, and cheilocystidia of 16-27 × 3-8 μm, hyaline, sublageniform or subfusoid, simple or irregularly branched. The basidia are 4-spored, ventricose or subpyriform, and hyaline. Psilocybe banderillensis is similar to P. herrerae, from which it can be differentiated only by its wide pleurocystidia.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is only known from two subpopulations in Mexico, both in mountain cloud forest. One of the subpopulations. This is a rare species with restricted distribution range and an association with Mountain Cloud Forest.
Based on climate change models, mountain could forest in Mexico is estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), this will represent a decline in the extent and quality of the habitat larger than 50% over three generations (about 50 years). Thus the species should be listed as Endangered, supported in criteria A3c.


Geographic range

This species is only known from two subpopulations in Mexico, one in the state of Oaxaca, and the other in Veracruz, both with mountain cloud forest vegetation, with prevalence of Liquidambar sp. in Veracruz. This species was described in 1978, from specimens collected in Cerro La Martinica, Veracruz, Mexico, in 1976. Later on Guzman et al. (2005) recorded an additional subpopulation in Llano Grande, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Those are the only subpopulations known so far.


Population and Trends

This species is only known from two subpopulations in Mexico, one in the state of Oaxaca, and the other in Veracruz, both with mountain cloud forest vegetation, with prevalence of Liquidambar sp. in Veracruz. This species was described in 1978, from specimens collected in Cerro La Martinica, Veracruz, Mexico, in 1976 and later Guzman et al. (2005) recorded an additional subpopulation in Llano Grande, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Neither, a monographic treatment of the genus by Guzman (1983), or the supplement to such monograph (1995), reported additional localities. Also and additional monographic treatment was conducted few years later (Ramirez-Cruz 2010), but no additional subpopulatios or specimens were recorded for this species.
Since 1976 only two subpopulations are known. Considering the extensive taxonomic work conducted over that period (three monographs and several papers), it is very likely that the known subpopulations represents the real distribution of the species.
The subpopulation in Cerro La Martinica is located inside a protected natural area, were urbanization and other human activities have limited impact, but the area still is susceptible to the effect of climate change.
The subpopulation in Oaxaca is located in a suburban area, and is subject to pressures from human activities, and those from the effect of climate change.
Based on climate change models, mountain cloud forest in Mexico is estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012). This would result in a significant decline in suitable habitat for Psilocybe banderillensis.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This species is only known from two subpopulations with mountain cloud forest vegetation type. One of the subpopulation is located in Cerro La Martinica, in Veracruz. This species is considered to be saprophytic, and do not establish specific associations with plants, but it is only know from localities with mountain cloud forest, and some level of preference for that vegetation type is assumed.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Cerro La Martinica is a very small patch of mountain cloud forest, located next to the suburbs of Xalapa, and established as a protected natural area in 2010. The area is relatively isolated from disturbance from human activities, but because of its small size, and its close vicinity to urban areas, some level of disturbance is suspected.
The other subpopulation is located in Llano Grande, Oaxaca. This is a small suburban locality, with mountain cloud forest, near the road from Tuxtepec to Huautla. The area do not have large human settles, but the forest is under pressure because of the regular forestry activity. The area is not considered under any protective regime.
In Mexico, the mountain cloud forest represents 1% of the forest, and is projected to decline in 68% over the next 60 years, because of the effect of climate change.
The subpopulation in Veracruz is considered to be less vulnerable to human activity, but still vulnerable to climate change. On the other hand the subpopulation in Oaxaca is considered to be vulnerable to climate change and human activities.
The major threats for this species are from the effect of the climate change in the quality and extension of its habitat, and from human activities in the areas were the species distributes.
In Mexico, the mountain cloud forest represents 1% of the forest, and is projected to decline in 68% over the next 60 years, because of the effect of climate change.

Housing & urban areasSmall-holder farmingSmall-holder plantationsRecreational activitiesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The subpopulation located in Veracruz is inside a protected area, and conservation plans were set in place in the locality, specially regarding protection against the impact of the human activities in the surroundings. Even so, the vegetation patch is susceptible to the effect of climate change, which happen at global scale.
The subpopulation in Oaxaca, is located in a suburban area, where human activities, especially farming and cattle, have a severe impact in the quality of the habitat. Also this subpopulation is located in a small patch of mountain cloud forest.
Site protection and global warming mitigation are to conserve the species.

Site/area protectionNational level

Research needed

For this species research is needed in its taxonomy and systematics, in order to corroborate the independent status of Psilocybe banderillensis var. paulensis, from the typical variety. Also research is needed to locate additional subpopulations, with emphasis in the state of Oaxaca, where the subpopulation is not under special protection.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade

This species is hallucinogenic and its consumption is assumed, but only in a marginal scale, specially considering that the species is not consumed in rituals by any cultural group in the region (Guzman et al. 2005). There are no records of trade for the species, because its trading is banned by Mexican law.

Food - human

Bibliography

Guzmán, G. (2005). Species Diversity of the Genus Psilocybe (Basidio- mycotina, Agaricales, Strophariaceae) in the World Mycobiota, with Special Attention to Hallucinogenic Properties. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 7, 305-331.
Guzmán, G., Jacobs, J. Q., Ramírez-Guillén, F., Murrieta, D. y Gándara, E. (2005). The Taxonomy of Psilocybe fagicola-complex. The Journal of Microbiology, 43(2), 158-165
Guzmán, G. (1983). The genus Psilocybe. Nova Hedwigia 74, Cramer.
Guzmán, G. (1995). Supplement to the monograph of the genus Psilocybe. Taxonomic Monographs of Agaricales. Bibliotheca Mycologica 159, 91-141.
Guzmán, G., Horak, E., Halling, R., Ramírez-Guillén, F. (2009). Further studies on Psilocybe from thr Caribbean, Central America and South America, with descriptions of new species and remarks to new records. Sidowia 61, 215-242.
Ponce-Reyes, R., Nicholson, E., Baxter, P. W. J., Fuller, R. A. and Possingham, H. (2012). Extinction risk in cloud forest fragments under climate change and habitat loss. Diversity and Distributions 19, 518–529.
Ramírez-Cruz, V. (2010). Taxonomía y análisis filogenético del género Psilocybe sensu lato (Fungi, Agaricales). Tesis de Doctorado en Ciencias en Biosistemática, Ecología y Manejo de Recursos Naturales y Agrícolas. Universidad de Guadalajara, México.
Ramírez-Cruz,V.,  Guzmán, G., Villalobos-Arámbula, A.R., Rodríguez, A., Matheny, P.B., Sánchez-García, M. and Guzmán-Dávalos, L. (2013). Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe sensu lato (Agaricales). Botany 91, 573–591.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted