• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • Assessed
  • VUPublished

Leptonia carnea Largent

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Scientific name
Leptonia carnea
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
IUCN Red List Category
VU C2a(i)
Proposed by
Else Vellinga
Else Vellinga
Christian Schwarz
Else Vellinga

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This beautiful species is restricted to the Coast Redwood forests of California, USA, which have become under severe drought stress because of changing summer fog patterns, and reduced winter rains. The Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is endemic to coastal areas of California and utmost southern Oregon, and has been, is and will continue to be subject to logging, resulting in patchiness and fragmentation of suitable habitat.
Vulnerable under criterion C2a(i), because of less than 2500 mature individuals.

Geographic range

Northern Coastal California from Humboldt County in the north into Monterey County, with one observation from Washington that has to be confirmed.

Population and Trends

Known from a small number of localities in the counties of Humboldt, Mendocino, Sonoma, Marin, Santa Cruz and Monterey. In total probably less than 50 localities known.
Restricted to Sequoia sempervirens forests. These forests have been extensively logged during the last century, and continue to be logged, resulting in severe habitat loss.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

Terrestrial, and of unknown nutritional status, in Sequoia sempervirens forests. One find in Cupressus macrocarpa stand, and one observation outside the occurrence of Sequoia sempervirens in Washington state (but has to be confirmed).
Often on slightly disturbed sites.


Habitat changes and habitat destruction as a result of two major impacts: logging of coastal redwood forests that has been going on for a century (Noss 2000), and the changes in the remnants of these forests due to decreased summer fog (Johnstone & Dawson, 2010) and irregular winter rains, which are the cause of increased drought stress of the trees.

Conservation Actions

The following actions are needed:
-protection of the existing Sequoia sempervirens forests from logging
-curbing of carbon emissions.

Research needed

Use and Trade


Johnstone JA, Dawson TE, 2010. Climatic context and ecological implications of summer fog decline in the coast redwood region. PNAS 107: 4533–4538.

Largent DL. 1977. The genus Leptonia on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Bibiolotheca Mycologica 55: 1-286.

Largent DL. 1994. Entolomatoid fungi of the Western United States and Alaska.

Noss RF (ed.) 2000. The Redwood Forest: History, Ecology, and Conservation of the Coast Redwoods. 339 pp.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted