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  • Under Assessment
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Lepiota brunneolilacea Bon & Boiffard

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Scientific name
Lepiota brunneolilacea
Bon & Boiffard
Common names
Star Dapperling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
Proposed by
Eef Arnolds
Eef Arnolds
Anders Dahlberg
Comments etc.
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Claudia Perini, Odysseas Theodorou

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.


Lepiota brunneolilacea is a fairly large Lepiota species with a minutely scaly, vinaceous brown to lilac brown plieus of 30-75 mm and a sturdy stipe (20-80 x 8-15 mm) with a floccose annulus. It is one of the very few Lepiota species growing in yellow dunes near the sea-coast, the stipe base often deeply buried in sand. The species has a restricted range along the coasts of Western and Southern Europe and is only known from a few localities. The sites are potentially threatened by recreational development, artificial fixation of dune sand and, in the longer term, rising of the sea level. In view of the small, strongly fragmented area of occupancy and a continuing decline of the extant and quality of the habitat L. brunneolilacea is considered as endangered (B2).

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

South- and West-Europe, North-Africa: The coasts of Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Population and Trends

Lepiota brunneolilacea is only known from few localities within its limited distribution area, e.g. in Great-Britain only form Jersey (Legon & Henrici, 2006), in the Netherlands from two localities (Noordeloos et al., 2015), in Germany from one locality, in Italy from less than 10 localities (Onofri, 2006). The number of localities, including possible undiscovered localities, is estimated at a maximum of 80. The extant of occurence is larger than 100,000 km2; however the area of occupancy is smaller than 500 km2. Populations are small, usually consisting of 1-2 (max. 5) mycelia , and strongly fragmented, so probably the world population is less than 500 individuals. The occurrence on its sites is irregular. Figures on trends of this species are unknown, but there is a continuous loss of habitat and decrease of habitat quality, so we assume a decrease of the species.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Lepiota brunneolilacea grows in dynamic, young, yellow dunes, often near Ammophila arenaria, occasionally also near scrub of Hippophae rhamnoides and near Quercus ilex. Apparently saprotrophic on buried organic matter.

Coastal Sand Dunes


Potential threats are: development of sandy coasts for recreational purposes; fixing of yellow dunes by planting of forest or Ammophila; in the longer term also increasing washing away of sites by sea level rising (climate change).

Tourism & recreation areas

Conservation Actions

Preservation of undisturbed, dynamic, sandy coasts.

Resource & habitat protection

Research needed

Monitoring of known sites may be useful to obtain a more detailed understanding of habitat requirements and population dynamics.

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade


Arnolds, E. & M. Groenendaal. 2004. Coolia 47: 49-51.
Bon, M. & J. Boiffard. 1972. Lépiotes des dunes Vendéennes. Bull. Soc. mycol. France 88: 15-28.
Candusso, M. & G. Lanzoni. 1990. Lepiota s.l. Fungi Europaei 4.
Legon, N.W. & A. Henrici. 2005. Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota.
Onofri, S. (ed.). 2005. Checklist dei funghi italiani.
Vaessen, A., M. Noordeloos & H. Snater. 2015. Paddenstoelenparadijs witte duinen. Coolia 58: 63-70.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted