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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
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Flammulina ononidis Arnolds

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Scientific name
Flammulina ononidis
Author
Arnolds
Common names
Kulu-sametkõrges
Hauhechel-Samtfußrübling
Travnjačka panjevka
penízovka jehlicová
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Physalacriaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c+3c+4c
Proposed by
Armin Mešić
Assessors
Armin Mešić
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Daniel Dvořák, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Irja Saar

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Flammulina ononidis is a characteristic species of European thermophilous seminatural grasslands where it occurs as a saprotroph on roots or stem bases of Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa). Suitable grassland habitats are extensively grazed (by cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regularly hand mowed. According to present knowledge the species is distributed in 16 European countries. Its available habitats in Europe are increasingly threatened by the abandonment of traditional farming, intensification of agricultural practices, eutrophication and use of fertilizers and/or pesticides. Based on the estimated number of localities (max. 250) the inferred total population of this species in Europe is less than 2500 individuals. The estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals based on a decrease of habitat quality is at least 20% in 2 generations (30 years). This meets the threshold for EN C1.


Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer var. pratensis Schief.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Flammulina ononidis is distributed in 16 countries in Europe. It is a rare and characteristic species of thermophilous, semi-natural grasslands. These habitats are continuously declining in most European countries due to the abandonment of small-scale traditional farming. The existence of semi-natural grasslands depends on traditional agricultural practices that include grazing (by cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regular hand mowing followed by sward removal.


Geographic range

Flammulina ononidis is distributed in 16 European countries. Its eastern distribution limits are not well known (Russia).


Population and Trends

The species is currently reported in 16 European countries. GBIF database lists 38 species occurrences in total. There are less than 10 sites known in most countries (e.g. Austria 4, Croatia 2, Czech Republic 6, Poland 1, Slovakia 1) with the exception of Germany where approximately 40 sites have been reported. The number of localities (including possible undiscovered localities) is estimated at a maximum of 250. It is projected that populations consist of 10 mycelia on each site (Dahlberg & Mueller 2011) and the inferred total population in Europe is less than 2500 individuals. Many different types of grassland habitats are assessed as threatened in The European Red List of Habitats (Janssen et al. 2016). Flammulina ononidis host plant (Ononis spinosa) is currently IUCN-assessed as LC (Chadburn 2014) with a decreasing population trend due to permanent habitat loss and a decrease of habitat quality. The estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals based on a decrease in habitat quality is at least 20% in 2 generations. The species is included in four national fungal Red Lists in Europe (Austria - EN, Croatia - VU, Czech Republic - CR, Germany - EN).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Flammulina ononidis is a characteristic species of thermophilous, unimproved, semi-natural grasslands in Europe. It occurs as a saprotroph (Ripková & al. 2008) on roots or stem bases of Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa). Suitable grasslands are those extensively managed by grazing (cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regular hand mowing (once or twice a year) followed by sward removal. Modern management practices that include fertilization and pesticide application, together with eutrophication, have a strong negative impact on the quality of habitats needed for survival of this species.

Temperate Grassland

Threats

The main threats to the existence of Flammulina ononidis are fragmentation, degradation and the disappearance of thermophilous seminatural grasslands inhabited with its host plant (Ononis spinosa) in Europe. Spiny Restharrow is currently IUCN-assessed as LC (Chadburn 2014) but with a decreasing population trend. Suitable semi-natural grasslands are characterized by low levels of available phosphorus and nitrogen in the soil. These habitats depend on traditional agricultural practices that include grazing (by cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regular hand mowing (at least once a year) followed by sward removal.
The area covered by the semi-natural grasslands is continuously declining in most European countries due to the abandonment of small scale, low intensity farming. Abandoned grasslands frequently become overgrown by shrubs and woods, which dramatically changes the structure of native fungal community composition. Moreover, intensification of farming practices together with the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and eutrophication have had a strong negative effect on fungal diversity of grassland habitats. In the 20th century, more than 90 % of semi-natural grasslands have been lost throughout Europe (EEA Report 3/2016) and currently around half of grassland habitats in Europe are threatened to some degree (Janssen et al. 2016).

Housing & urban areasSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingHerbicides and pesticides

Conservation Actions

Protection of known sites (with Flammulina ononidis and its host plant) and appropriate habitat management are the most important conservation measures. Grassland management should be based on traditional farming methods including extensive grazing (by cattle, horses, sheep, etc.) or regular hand mowing, at least once a year before the fruiting season, followed by sward removal. To protect valuable grassland mycobiota, financial stimulation to people in rural areas for the maintenance of the grasslands by extensive hand mowing and/or grazing should be introduced. Small-scale farming should be generally encouraged in order to preserve or restore semi-natural grasslands in Europe.


Research needed

It is necessary to explore population size and exact distribution limits of this species.

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Arnolds E. (1977) Einige Pilze eines Halbtrockenrasen bei Detmold (Westfalen). Westfäl. Pilzbriefe 11(3/4): 29-39.

Bas C. (1983) Flammulina in western Europe. Persoonia 12: 51-66.

Chadburn H. (2014) Ononis spinosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T203354A2764325. Downloaded on 07 March 2019.

Dahlberg A., Mueller G. M. (2011) Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 147–162.

EC (2012) Rural development in the European Union — Statistical and economic information — 2012 (http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/statistics/ruraldevelopment/2012/)

EEA (2015). State of nature in the EU. Technical report No 2/2015. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

EEA (2016) Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe’s ecosystems: progress and challenges. EEA Report 3/2016. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

GBIF (2019) Flammulina ononidis Arnolds. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2019-03-06.

Holec J., Beran M. (eds). 2006. Červený seznam hub (makromycetů) České republiky. Příroda 24: 1-282.

Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S., García Criado M., Gubbay S., Haynes T., Nieto A., Sanders N., Landucci F., Loidi J., Ssymank A., Tahvanainen T., Valderrabano M., Acosta A., Aronsson M., Arts G., Attorre F., Bergmeier E., Bijlsma R.-J., Bioret F., Biţă-Nicolae C., Biurrun I., Calix M., Capelo J., Čarni A., Chytrý M., Dengler J., Dimopoulos P., Essl F., Gardfjell H., Gigante D., Giusso del Galdo G., Hájek M., Jansen F., Jansen J., Kapfer J., Mickolajczak A., Molina J.A., Molnár Z., Paternoster D., Piernik A., Poulin B., Renaux B., Schaminée J.H.J., Šumberová K., Toivonen H., Tonteri T., Tsiripidis I., Tzonev R., Valachovič M. (2016). European Red List of habitats. Part 2. Terrestrial and freshwater habitats. European Union, Luxembourg.

Klán J. (1978) Flammulina ononidis Arnolds, ein besonderer Steppen-Samtfussrübling in der Tschechoslowakei. Česká Mykol. 32: 205-214.

Łuszczyński J., Łuszczyńska B., Tomaszewska A., Sobaś K., Kostrzewa M., Grudzień K. (2014) Flammulina ononidis – first record in Poland. Acta Mycol. 49 (1): 79–85.

Ripková S., Adamčík S., Kučera V. (2008) Flammulina ononidis – a new species for Slovakia. – Czech Mycol. 60(2): 221–230.

Rounsevell M., Fischer M., Torre-Marin Rando A, Mader A. (eds.) (2018). The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia. Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany. 892 pp.

Tkalčec Z., Mešić A., Matočec N., Kušan I. (2005) Crvena knjiga gljiva Hrvatske (Red Book of Croatian Fungi). http://www.haop.hr/sites/default/files/uploads/dokumenti/03_prirodne/crvene_knjige_popisi/Crvena_knjiga_gljiva_WEB.pdf


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted