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Flammulina ononidis Arnolds

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Scientific name
Flammulina ononidis
Author
Arnolds
Common names
Kulu-sametkõrges
Hauhechel-Samtfußrübling
Travnjačka panjevka
penízovka jehlicová
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Physalacriaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-29
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2c+3c+4c
Assessors
Mešić, A.
Reviewers
Ainsworth, A.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/147295141/147879454

Justification

Flammulina ononidis is a characteristic species of European thermophilous seminatural grasslands where it occurs as a saprotroph on roots or stem bases of Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa). Suitable grassland habitats are extensively grazed (by cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regularly mowed. According to present knowledge the species is distributed in 16 European countries. Its available habitats in Europe are increasingly threatened by the abandonment of traditional farming, intensification of agricultural practices, eutrophication (airborne nitrogen deposition) and use of fertilizers and/or pesticides. The suspected continuing decline in the number of mature individuals based on a decrease of habitat quality is at least 30% in 3 generations (50 years). This meets the threshold for VU A2c+3c+4c.

Geographic range

Flammulina ononidis is distributed in 16 European countries. Its eastern distribution limits are not well known (Russia).

Population and Trends

The species is currently reported in 16 European countries. GBIF database lists 38 species occurrences in total. There are fewer than 10 sites known in most countries (e.g. Austria 4, Croatia 2, Czechia 6, Poland 1, Slovakia 1) with the exception of Germany where approximately 40 sites have been reported. The number of localities (including possible undiscovered localities) may be at least ten times this, and so it is not possible to accurately estimate its total population size. Many different types of grassland habitats are assessed as threatened in The European Red List of Habitats (Janssen et al. 2016). The host plant of Flammulina ononidis (Ononis spinosa) is currently assessed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List (Chadburn 2014) but with a decreasing population trend due to permanent habitat loss and a decrease of habitat quality. The distribution of this fungus is restricted to those parts of Ononis spinosa's range where it is most steeply declining. The suspected continuing decline in the number of mature individuals based on a loss of its host plant, associated with a decrease in its specific habitat extent and quality, is at least 30% in 3 generations (50 years). The species is included in four national fungal Red Lists in Europe (Austria - EN, Croatia - VU, Czechia - CR, Germany - EN).

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Flammulina ononidis is a characteristic species of thermophilous, unimproved, semi-natural grasslands in Europe. It occurs as a saprotroph (Ripková et al. 2008) on roots or stem bases of Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa). Suitable grasslands are those extensively managed by grazing (cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regular mowing (once or twice a year) followed by "arisings" removal. Modern management practices that include fertilization and pesticide application, together with eutrophication (airborne nitrogen deposition), have a strong negative impact on the quality of habitats needed for survival of this species.

Threats

The main threats to the existence of Flammulina ononidis are fragmentation, degradation and the disappearance of thermophilous seminatural grasslands inhabited with its host plant (Ononis spinosa) in Europe. Spiny Restharrow is currently assessed as LC on the IUCN Red List (Chadburn 2014) but with a decreasing population trend. Suitable semi-natural grasslands are characterized by low levels of available phosphorus and nitrogen in the soil. These habitats depend on traditional agricultural practices that include grazing (by cattle, horses, sheep, deer, etc.) or regular mowing (at least once a year) followed by "arisings" removal. 

The area covered by the semi-natural grasslands is continuously declining in most European countries due to the abandonment of small scale, low intensity farming. Abandoned grasslands frequently become overgrown by shrubs and woods, which dramatically changes the structure of native fungal community composition. Moreover, intensification of farming practices together with the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and eutrophication have had a strong negative effect on fungal diversity of grassland habitats. In the 20th century, more than 90% of semi-natural grasslands have been lost throughout Europe (EEA Report 3/2016) and currently around half of grassland habitats in Europe are threatened to some degree (Janssen et al. 2016).

Conservation Actions

Protection of known sites (with Flammulina ononidis and its host plant) and appropriate habitat management are the most important conservation measures. Grassland management should be based on traditional farming methods including extensive grazing (by cattle, horses, sheep, etc.) or regular mowing, at least once a year before the fruiting season, followed by "arisings" removal. To protect valuable grassland mycobiota, financial stimulation to people in rural areas for the maintenance of the grasslands by extensive mowing and/or grazing should be introduced. Small-scale farming should be generally encouraged in order to preserve or restore semi-natural grasslands in Europe.

It is necessary to explore population size and exact distribution limits of this species.

Use and Trade

This species is not utilized, even though other species in this genus are frequently eaten.

Source and Citation

Mešić, A. 2019. Flammulina ononidis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147295141A147879454. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T147295141A147879454.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence