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Entoloma necopinatum E. Horak

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Scientific name
Entoloma necopinatum
Author
E. Horak
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-03-31
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
B2ab(iii)
Assessors
Furci, G. & Smith, M.
Reviewers
Dentinger, B. & Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/75102685/196463081

Justification

This species has a minimum area of occupancy estimated as 800 km2, but it could be larger as fruiting bodies are rarely seen. It may occur at fewer than 10 locations, and there is a continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of its habitat. It is, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable B2ab(iii).

Geographic range

This species is present from southern Bio Bio region to Aysen region, Chile. It is not reported in Argentina, and based on habitat differences it is unlikely to be found there. Its extent of occurrence based on known occurrences is 53,100 km2. The area of occupancy (AOO) was calculated as 400 km2 based on suitable habitat patches by the Chilean national assessment (Ministerio del Medio Ambiente 2014). However, this does not include a recent record to the south, which potentially doubles this area: the minimum AOO is therefore estimated as approximately 800 km2, but noting that this may still be an underestimate, yet the total is still likely to be below 2,000 km2. The suitable habitat is highly fragmented, at least in the northern part of the range. There are currently six locations known based on the threat of changing land use, and even taking into account the additional areas of unsurveyed habitat, it is plausible that there are fewer than 10 locations.

Population and Trends

There is a lack of data to be able to estimate the population size or trends. Particularly in the north, habitat degradation is likely to be causing a decline. Further declines due to climate change are a potential problem.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This saprotrophic species grows individually or in small groups scattered on the ground in mixed Valdivian native forest. It is a very striking species due to its green colour. It forms basidiomes in autumn-winter. It inhabits coastal areas and foothills, growing in mixed forest of Nothofagus obliqua and N. dombeyi, between 52 and 440 m altitude.

Threats

Its major threat comes from impacts derived from its limited distribution. There are few records, and in these areas there is a latent threat from excessive deforestation. The quality of its habitat has declined due to disturbance within its range, resulting from a change of land use to plantation forestry and agriculture (including grazing animals within the forest). It has not been recorded from introduced exotic plantations, and due to the species' nutritional habits, the change in leaf litter from broad leafed litter to pine needles is detrimental to the species and its habitat viability. Climate change is also a potential future threat, as increasing frequency and severity of droughts is expected in this region which would negatively impact this species.

Conservation Actions

Three of the known sites are within protected areas, but protection of the additional sites would be beneficial to this species. Further research is needed on its distribution, particularly in the southern portion of its range, and further understanding of its ecology would be beneficial.

Use and Trade

This species is not utlized.

Source and Citation

Furci, G. & Smith, M. 2021. Entoloma necopinatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T75102685A196463081. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T75102685A196463081.en .Downloaded on 30 March 2021

Country occurrence