• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Climacodon sanguineus (Beeli) Maas Geest.

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Scientific name
Climacodon sanguineus
(Beeli) Maas Geest.
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Bee Kin Thi
Bee Kin Thi
Comments etc.
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

C. sanguineus has similar cap colour, hymenophore and spore shape with C. roseomaculatus which may be easily confused with each other. However, C. roseomaculatus has an effused-reflexed or sessile pileus with narrow base, and rarely has a stipe compared to C. sanguineus, which has a short stipe.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is rare and has only been encountered in tropical forests of Malaysia and Central Africa and the number is decreasing due to deforestation, leading to extensive land-use and land-cover change.

Geographic range

This fungus has been found growing solitarily or in small groups on woody substrates in highland forest in tropical region of Malaysia. The fungus has been reported from and altitude ranging from 1400 to 1600 m asl in Cameron Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. It has been reported in tropical forests of Central Africa including the Congo and Gabon.

Population and Trends

This fungus was reported from tropical forest of Congo, Central Africa in 1924, 1929, 1939; Gabon, Central Africa in 2008 and from Cameron Highlands, Malaysia in 2007, 2010 and 2020 in a small population with one to three sporocarps and it is in declining trend. The species was found at two sites in Cameron Highlands before and in 2010 while it only found in one collecting sites of Cameron Highlands in 2020. Most of the forest lands are opened and conversed into other land use such as for tea plantation and agriculture economy sector in Cameron Highlands. According to How et al. (2021), there is a reduction of 35.98 km2 or 5.14% in primary forest of the total land area in Cameron Highlands between 2009 and 2019. For the same period of time, the agricultural lands has increased 51.61 km2 in Cameron Highlands. Thus, the species is affected by the loss of these forest.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

This fungus has been found growing solitarily or in small groups on woody substrates such as twigs and branches.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


Areas of highland forest of Cameron Highlands in Malaysia are decreasing and under threat from logging and conversion into tea and agriculture plantations. Cameron Highlands is also popular as an ecotourism highland resort in Malaysia drawing many local and international tourists due to its cool weather and recreational sites.

Tourism & recreation areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantations

Conservation Actions

More areas of forest need to be conserved and/or protected.

Resource & habitat protectionSite/area managementNational level

Research needed

Intensive and long-term fungal surveys and inventories are needed in the region to obtain more information on the occurrence and distribution of this fungus (and others).

Population size, distribution & trendsArea-based Management PlanPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

Limited information.



Thi, B.K., Mohd Salleh, S. & Noorsiha, A. 2020. Climacodon sanguineus (Beeli) Maas Geest.. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Retrieved September 15, 2020, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/287.

Index Fungorum (2020). Climacodon. Available from http://www.indexfungorum.org. Retrieved June 19, 2020, from http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp.

How, J.A.D., Ismail M.H., Muharam, F.M., Alias, M.A. 2021. Evaluating the impacts of land use/land cover changes across topography against
land surface temperature in Cameron Highlands. PLoS ONE 16(5): e0252111. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252111

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted