• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Squamanita schreieri Imbach

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Scientific name
Squamanita schreieri
Author
Imbach
Common names
Gelber Schuppenwulstling
parazitnica Schreierova
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Tricholomataceae
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Assessors
Jean Berube, Ivona Kautmanova
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg, Ivona Kautmanova, Vladimír Kunca, Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Comments etc.
Tommy Knutsson, Michael Krikorev, Thomas Læssøe

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is rare, has an overall small population and is declining. As an parasitic fungicolous species it it a very extraordinary agaric. It has been found exclusively in alluvial forests.
Preliminary global red-list assessment:
VU to EN (D, D1) Number of mature individuals is less than 1000, probably less than 250. Number of known localities in the last 10 years is around 20 with 1-2 individuals per site.  Assessed for 10 years period proposed by Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) for fungi on short-lived discrete substrata, likely to have short generation length.
EN (B2a+bii+biii) AOO is less than 500 km2 and population is severely fragmented with observed and estimated continuing decline of area of occupancy and quality of habitat.
CR (C2ai) Small declining population with number of mature individuals in each subpopulation less than 50.


Geographic range


Population and Trends

Only very few localities are known and the species fruits only occasionally. Switzerland and Hungary, where the species has been recorded more frequently at past reported strong decline of the species during the last 10 years. Other countries report only isolated occasional records.
Considering overall bad state of the habitat (hardwood alluvial forests) in Europe we can estimate that decline of the species will continue also in future.
Estimated number of mature individuals is less than 1000, probably less than 250. Number of known localities in the last 10 years is around 20 with 1-2 individuals per site.
Though the EOO is more than 20 000km2, AOO is less than 500 km2 and population is severely fragmented with observed and estimated continuing decline.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Occuring in alluvial forests, parasitic on Amanita solitaria and Amanita strobliformis which are mycorrhizal with various deciduous trees mostly hardwood (e.g. Quercus, Fagus, Tillia).
Squamanita schreieri is known as parasite of two Amanita species (A. strobiliformis and A. echinocephala) which are themselves considered rare. Both Amanita species are xerothermophilous, mycorrhizal with various deciduous, mostly hardwood trees (Quercus, Fagus, Tillia a.o.). This is in contrast with the preferred habitat of S. schreieri, which is alluvial forests. Despite the lack of data this leads to the conclusion that S. schreieri probably needs hardwood alluvial forest (Querco-Ulmetum), corresponding with NATURA 2000 habitat 91F0 - Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris).

Temperate Forest

Threats

The current state of NATURA 2000 habitat 91F0 - Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris) is assessed as ‘unfavourable-bad’ in most European countries, reflecting the ’bad’ status o f the habitat area and structure and function. The functions of the habitat are closely linked to the flood regime of the river. This habitat is seriously threatened due to management of water levels and the regulation of water courses with very few of Europe’s larger rivers having a natural flood regime. (Eionet Forum, Article 17 - Reporting under Habitats Directive).
Moreover, this habitat is threatened by invasive logging, replanting of the native hardwood trees by rapidly growing cultivars and non-native species, inappropriate forestry techniques, resulting in land degradation and spreading of invasive plant species and water pollution.
Loss of the habitat results in decreasing populations of Amanita host species of S. schreieri and finally in significant decline of S. schreieri itself.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasAgro-industry plantationsRenewable energyRoads & railroadsAbstraction of ground water (commercial use)Abstraction of ground water (unknown use)

Conservation Actions

The species is redlisted in 4 countries, in Hungary it is protected by law.
Some of the sites (e.g. in Slovakia) are within protected areas.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

Research needed in bionomy and ecology of the species.


Bibliography

Senn-Irlet, B.; Bieri, G.; Egli, S., 2007: 
Liste rouge Champignons supérieurs. Liste rouge des espèces menacées en Suisse.
L’environnement pratique. Berne, Office fédéral de l’environnement OFEV, Birmendorf, Institut fédéral de recherche sur la forêt, la neige et le paysage WSL. 18: 94 S
Breitenbach, J & F. Kränzlin. 1995. Pilze der Schweiz.. Band 4. Verlag Mykologia Luzern.
Krieglsteiner, G.J. (Hrsg.) 2001. Die Grosspilze Baden-Württembergs. Band 3 Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart.
Readhead, S.A.; Ammirati, J.F.; Walker, G.R.; Norvell, L.L. & M.B. Puccio. 1994. Squamanita contortipes, the Rosetta Stone of a mycoparasitic agaric genus. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 1812-1824.
Schreier, J. 1938. Tricholoma X, ein unbekannter Ritterling?. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 16: 97-100.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted