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  • Under Assessment
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Ramaria rufescens (Schaeff.) Corner

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Scientific name
Ramaria rufescens
Author
(Schaeff.) Corner
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Gomphales
Family
Gomphaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i)
Proposed by
Tor Erik Brandrud
Assessors
Tor Erik Brandrud
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Anton Shiryaev

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Ramaria rufescens is a mycorrhizal species associated with Picea abies and (more rarely) Pinus sylvestris, in calcareous, mossy spruce- or pine forests of N and C Europe.
These forest types often occupy small and fragmented areas, and are declining both in N and C Europe, due to areal loss and reduced ecological conditions. 
Global red-list assessment:
The species is known from approx. 35 localities in Scandinavia, and a little less from C Europe. The total population is estimated to approx. 600 localities, which is equivalent to approx. 12 000 individuals according to IUCN standards.
The decline of the calcareous Picea-Pinus forests in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20%. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%).
According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species also becomes red-listed as NT, based on a continuous decline, population size

<20 000 (>

10 000) mature individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.


Taxonomic notes

The species has also been called Ramaria lacteobrunnescens, and some records/reports might be under this name.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Ramaria rufescens is a mycorrhizal species associated with Picea abies and (more rarely) Pinus sylvestris, in calcareous, mossy spruce- or pine forests of N and C Europe.
These forest types often occupy small and fragmented areas, and are declining both in N and C Europe, due to areal loss and reduced ecological conditions. 
Global red-list assessment:
The species is known from approx. 35 localities in Scandinavia, and a little less from C Europe. The total population is estimated to approx. 600 localities, which is equivalent to approx. 12 000 individuals according to IUCN standards.
The decline of the calcareous Picea-Pinus forests in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20%. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%).
According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species also becomes red-listed as NT, based on a continuous decline, population size

<20 000 (>

10 000) individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.


Geographic range

Ramaria rufescens, as a number of other European species of calcareous Picea(-Pinus) forests, has a limited, bicentric distribution, restricted to calcareous spruce(-pine) forests in in certain regions of N and C Europe. In N Europe the species is recorded from calcareous districts of SE Norway and SE Sweden, with a northern limit in Jämtland, C Sweden (Nitare & Brandrud 2012).
In C Europe, the species is reported mainly from the Prealps of S Germany, Switzerland, Austria and N Italy, but probably the species follows the natural distribution of Picea abies in calcareous districts, also into the less investigated Carpathians and Balkan.  The species is possibly reported also from Spain (as R. lacteobrunescens; Nitare & Brandrud 2012).


Population and Trends

Ramaria rufescens is known from approx. 40 sites/localities in Scandinavia (20 in Norway, 20 in Sweden), according to data from national redlists (cf. also Nitare & Brandrud 2012), and from approx. 20 sites/localities of C Europe according to databases. Furthermore, the species is known from approx 15 sites/localities of Russia, including Asian part. The species altogether approx. 75 sites/localities known. The total population is estimated to approx. 750-800 sites/localities, which is equivalent to approx. 12 000(-14 000) individuals according to IUCN standards.
The decline of the calcareous Picea-Pinus forests in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20%. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%).
According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species also becomes red-listed as NT, based on a continuous decline, population size

<20 000 (>

10 000) individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

Ramaria rufescens is associated with Picea abies and more rarely Pinus sylvestris. Its major habitats are calcareous, mossy, herb-rich Picea- or Picea-Pinus forests of N or C Europe, forest types with many habitat-specific taxa of Cortinarius, subgenus Phlegmacium.  The species occurs mainly in old-growth forests.

Boreal Forest

Threats

Ramaria rufescens and its habitats (calcareous Picea(-Pinus) forests) have been declining e.g. due to areal loss (urbanization, including tourist resorts, road constructions, expansion of limestone quarries) as well as decreased habitat quality/ecological conditions due to modern forestry with clear-cuttings. Forest statistics from Austria indicates that forestry activity has been doubled the last 40 years in Picea-Abies forests, and according to a habitat-redlist in Austria, the Picea-Abies forests are endangered in many regions of Austria. One of the major habitat in Norway, the calcareous pine(-spruce) forests of SE Telemark has declined by >50% due to areal loss since 1970 (and the calcareous Picea-Pinus forest types are redlisted as VU in Norway).

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

To prevent decline and further fragmentation of calcareous Picea(-Pinus) forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves on calcareous hotspots, housing many rare/redlisted, habitat-specific species. It is furthermore important to establish also sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, where some non-destructive human activities are accepted (such as non-intensive forestry, with closed cutting).

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

More mapping/surveying and monitoring of Ramaria rufescens is needed. The species is little documented from C Europe, where it probably has a wider distribution, probably also in the Carpathian-Balkan region. Finally, more documentation on the degree of decline of the habitats themselves is needed.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Nitare, J. & Brandrud, T.E. 2012. Fjällfotad fingersvamp Ramaria rufescens – en luring som har tydliga kännetecken när man väl lärt känna den. Sv. Mykol. Tidsskr. 33(2): 42-48.
Christan, J. 2008. Die Gattung Ramaria in Deutschland. IHW-Verlag-2008.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted