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Cymatoderma sclerotioides (Lloyd) D.A. Reid

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Scientific name
Cymatoderma sclerotioides
Author
(Lloyd) D.A. Reid
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Meruliaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-08-18
IUCN Red List Category
NT
Assessors
Funez, L., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Leopoldo, E., Drechsler-Santos, E. & Vasco-Palacios, A.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/196135502/200624571

Justification

This is a very rare species, having being recorded from only a limited number of sites since 1922, represented by no more than 25 collections. The species has conspicuous large, colourful basidiomata, thus the small number of collections is probably due to its rarity. Based on the potential area of occurrence, it is conservatively estimated that there are up to 1,000-2,000 sites, each holding 5-10 mature individuals, resulting in a total population size of 10,000-20,000. Although the Amazon Forest domain is the largest and most preserved Tropical Forest in Brazil, the areas where the species occurs are under threat, with the Amazon facing growing deforestation and the possibility of approaching its tipping point (Amigo 2020, INPE 2020). Central American montane forests are under threat throughout much of their range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, agriculture, and expansion of towns and cities. Further pressure and population reductions are expected to continue throughout the species range, and as such a population decline of up to 20% is suspected over in the next 20 years. The species is assessed as Near Threatened under criteria A3c; C1.

Taxonomic notes

This species was originally described as Stereum sclerotioides by Lloyd (1922), based on a specimen with no precise geographic data, from the Amazon Forest. In 1959, D.A. Reid placed this species in the genus Cymatoderma Reid (1958).

Geographic range

This species is currently known from the Amazon Forest of Brazil (Mato Grosso and Roraima states), Peru (Loreto Department) and Colombia (Caqueta and Amazonas). It is also known from northern Panama and southern Costa Rica, both in montane tropical forests near Volcán Barú/Cordillera Talamanca. In the Amazon, the known sites are about 1,500-2,000 km away from each other. The species is expected to occur throughout the Amazon and through tropical forests of Colombia into Panama and Costa Rica.

Population and Trends

The species was first recorded in 1922 in the Brazilian Amazon Forest without precise information about its locality. Six other records are known from the Amazon, four in the western Amazon (two from Iquito, Peru in 1984 and one each from two localities in Colombia), one from northern Amazon (Roraima, Brazil in 2008), and one in southern Amazon (Mato Grosso, Brazil in 2018). The species has also been recorded in Central America, in Costa Rica and Panama, where ca. 20 collections have been reported, all in the tropical montane forests in the Cordillera Talamanca. Although this species has a wide distribution, it is likely rare in the Amazon, as there are few records even in well sampled areas. For example, at the Cristalino Particular Reserve, in Mato Grosso state where fungi have been studied and documented intensively in the last decade, just one basidiome of Cymatoderma sclerotioides has been found.

Based on the potential area of occurrence, it is conservatively estimated that there are up to 2,000 sites for the species, each holding 5-10 mature individuals, resulting in a total population size of up to 20,000. However, due to the species' rarity, these numbers could be an overestimate, and the population size may not exceed 10,000 mature individuals. 

The Amazon Forest is undergoing rapid deforestation and facing increased fire frequency and intensity, following years of decline (INPE 2020). The forest could be dangerously approaching a tipping point, when the forest can no longer sustain its own water cycles, drastically changing into a savannah, leading to huge biodiversity losses (Amigo 2020). 

Central American montane forests are also under threat throughout much of their range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, agriculture, and expansion of towns and cities. Further pressures are expected to continue. Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the near future. Parts of the Talamancas are protected in National parks, but other areas are privately held, and there is limited logging ongoing as well as commercial and housing developments. Additionally, in mountainous areas were this species occurs, the total forest cover has not significantly changed in the last 20 years (MINAE et al. 2018).

Overall, the species is suspected to undergo a population decline of up to 20% in the next 20 years.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This species likely occurs throughout the Amazon Forest domain to the montane tropical forests of Central America, growing on buried pieces of heartwood.

Threats

The Amazon ecosystem has been facing a rapid increase in deforestation and fire frequency following years of decline (INPE 2020), and the forest could be dangerously approaching a tipping point, when the forest can no longer sustain its own water cycles, drastically changing into a savannah, leading to huge biodiversity losses (Amigo 2020). The Amazon domain in Brazil suffers from continued commercial logging and deforestation for cattle and implementation of soybean plantations as a result of the economy plan for Brazilian Amazonia (Fernside 2008). Even in the Western Amazon (includes parts of Bolivia, western Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru), which is better preserved than the Eastern Amazon (mostly inside Brazilian territory), there are threats like illegal mining and oil and gas extraction that tend to increase over time (Finer et al. 2008). Overall, the suitable area where the species occurs in the Amazon has declined at least 18% in the last 30 years. Central American montane forests are also under threat throughout much of their range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, agriculture, and expansion of towns and cities.

Conservation Actions

The main action to prevent the decline of the species is preservation of habitat, both known and potential, not yet discovered sites, by creating and appropriately managing conservation areas. More surveys and long term studies are needed to identify other sites and to better estimate the population size. Also, studies on the habitat of the species and its ecological relationships are needed. Currently, there are no available DNA sequences of this species, and its phylogenetic and taxonomic status need to be confirmed.

Use and Trade

No use/trade is known.

Source and Citation

Funez, L., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Leopoldo, E., Drechsler-Santos, E. & Vasco-Palacios, A. 2021. Cymatoderma sclerotioides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T196135502A196846666. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T196135502A196846666.en .Downloaded on 31 March 2021

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