Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea Cleland -(Cleland 1931)
Clavuliopsis corallinorosacea (Cleland) Corner -(Corner 1950)
Alternative spacing and hyphenation: corallino rosacea or corallino-rosacea
This species should be considered for a global red list assessment based on its small number of known occurrences and likely small population.
According to observations in GBIF (2019), Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea has a primary geographic presence in Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, the fungus has been seen mostly along the eastern coast and in Tasmania, while occurrences in New Zealand are common on both islands. There has also been one identification and collection in Indonesia (Noverita and Setia, 2019). Although the GBIF database (2019) also includes two occurrences in Brazil as part of a collection by the Universidade Federal da Bahia, these two specimens are catalogued as a possible institution error, and should not be included in the known geographic range.
Based on these observations, the estimated geographic range for this species in Australia is about 340,000 km2, while the range in New Zealand is about 170,000 km2 (GBIF Occurrence Dataset, 2020).
This fungus has relatively few sightings, so the actual range of occurrence may span a much larger area than is currently known. For example, the area covered by forests in Australia spans 1,340,000 km2 (Australian Department of Agriculture, Water, and the Environment, 2020), and these other forested regions may also possess un-surveyed populations of C. corallinorosacea.
Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea appears to have a restricted population size, based on geo-tagged references and other collected specimens. There have been on the order of 200 observations of the fungus, with about half of these taking place in the last five years. (GBIF, 2019) While this could be due to an increase in species population, it is also likely that the use of citizen science (Theobald et al. 2015; Irga, Barker, and Torpy 2018) has contributed to the rise in published sightings without a real population increase. Therefore, more studies are needed to determine the trends in population size.
An extremely rough population size estimate can be calculated based on the geographic range in Australia and New Zealand. Based on an assumption of an average of 1 mature individual for every 100 square kilometers of possible habitat, the population size in Australia would be about 3400 individuals, while that in New Zealand would be about 1700 individuals. More research on the reproduction and distribution of subpopulations of the fungus are required for a more accurate population estimate, as it is unclear what specific habitats within the extent of occurrence would provide proper living and fruiting conditions.
Population Trend: Uncertain
This fungus is associated with various forest habitats. The first publication of the species, by Cleland (1931) noted that the fungus was possibly associated with the Lantana plant, which is invasive in Australia (Bhagwat et al. 2012). Later, a publication by Corner (1950) stated that it was found “on the ground under trees”. Data from the Australian government (Australian Department of Agriculture, Water, and the Environment, 2020) indicates that the coastal forested regions where the fungus has been observed are primarily forests of Eucalyptus species, although the one known sighting on the western coast took place in West Cape Howe National Park, which is karri forest (“West Cape Howe”, 2017). In New Zealand, the fungus appears to be primarily associated with the native beech and podocarp forests (Ministry for Primary Industries, 2020). In Indonesia, this fungi was collected in a peat swamp (Noverita and Setia, 2019). These varying characteristics indicate that the fungus can survive in a range of forested habitats. There is some evidence that the fungus has either an ectomycorrhizal or saprobic lifestyle. For instance, Birkebak et al. classified the species as ectomycorrhizal (2019), while other publications have classified the genus as saprobic (Richard et al., 2004). If the species is mycorrhizal, its partner species are unknown.
While observations cluster near major population centers such as Melbourne (GBIF, 2019), this is most likely an artifact of the presence of individuals recording the fungus, meaning that the fungus is most likely also present in non-populated areas. However, it should be noted that the expansion of major population centers may become a threat to the species in the future, as the presence of this species in forest regions means that it may be impacted by any societal developments that require clear-cutting or logging actions. Other possible threats to this species include wildfires, as a study by Robinson (1999) found that closely related species in the genus Clavulinopsis were negatively impacted by an Australian karri forest fire.
No specific conservation actions are recommended at this time other than preservation and protection of natural forest areas and native species in these regions. The possibility of a mycorrhizal lifestyle (Birkebak, 2015) makes plant preservation especially important. However, further research is required before making additional conservation action assessments.
Very little information exists on Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea. As such, more research is required into its habitat and ecology, population size, and geographic distribution. For instance, some evidence, as referenced above, points to a mycorrhizal lifestyle (Birkebak, 2015), but further research is required to determine the appropriate host plants. Lifestyle and generation length are crucial to determining the population size, which is currently unknown. This information could be invaluable in making assessments about conservation threats and required actions.
No known uses or trade.
“Australia’s Forests – Overview.” n.d. Accessed December 3, 2020. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/forestsaustralia/profiles/australias-forests-2019.
Bhagwat, Shonil A., Elinor Breman, Tarsh Thekaekara, Thomas F. Thornton, and Katherine J. Willis. 2012. “A Battle Lost? Report on Two Centuries of Invasion and Management of Lantana Camara L. in Australia, India and South Africa.” PloS One 7 (3): e32407.
Birkebak, Joshua Mark. 2015. “Systematics and Diversification Patterns of Morphologically and Ecologically Diverse Lineages of Agaricomycetes:
Clavariaceae and Cantharellales.” University of Tennessee, Knoxville. https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/3542.
“Clavulinopsis Corallinorosacea.” n.d. Accessed December 4, 2020. https://www.mycobank.org/page/Simple names search.
“Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea (Cleland) Corner” in GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-12-05
Cleland, J. B. 1931. “Australian Fungi: Notes and Descriptions - No. 8.” Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 55. https://archive.org/stream/TransactionsRoy55Roya/TransactionsRoy55Roya_djvu.txt.
Corner, E. J. H. 1950. A Monograph of Clavaria and Allied Genera. Vol. 1. Annals of Botany Memoirs. Oxford University Press.
Dahlberg, Anders, and Gregory M. Mueller. 2011. “Applying IUCN Red-Listing Criteria for Assessing and Reporting on the Conservation Status of Fungal Species.” Fungal Ecology 4 (2): 147–62.
“GBIF Occurrence Download” GBIF.org (04 December 2020) https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.dw6a5n
“GBIF Occurrence Download” (04 December 2020) https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.yvveybGBIF.org
“Index Fungorum - Names Record.” n.d. Accessed December 4, 2020. http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=295048.
Irga, Peter J., Katherine Barker, and Fraser R. Torpy. 2018. “Conservation Mycology in Australia and the Potential Role of Citizen Science.” Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 32 (5): 1031–37.
Ministry for Primary Industries. n.d. “New Zealand’s Forests.” Accessed December 1, 2020. https://www.mpi.govt.nz/forestry/new-zealand-forests-forest-industry/new-zealands-forests/.
Noverita, and Tatang Mitra Setia. 2019. “Inventory of Macrofungi at Peat Swamp Forest Area, Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan.” Journal of Microbial Systematics and Biotechnology 1 (1): 11–18.
Petersen, Ronald H. 1979. “Notes on Clavarioid Fungi. XVII. Clavulinopsis Taxa in Southeastern Australia.” Sydowia XXXII. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_32_0209-0223.pdf.
Richard, F., P-A Moreau, M-A Selosse, and M. Gardes. 2004. “Diversity and Fruiting Patterns of Ectomycorrhizal and Saprobic Fungi in an Old-Growth Mediterranean Forest Dominated by Quercus Ilex L.” Canadian Journal of Botany. Journal Canadien de Botanique 82 (12): 1711–29.
Robinson, Richard M. 1999. “THE EFFECT OF WILDFIRE ON THE FRUITING OF MACROFUNGI IN REGROWTH KARRI FORESTS.” SPP 98/0015 Progress Report. https://library.dbca.wa.gov.au/static/FullTextFiles/018976.pdf.
Theobald, E. J., A. K. Ettinger, H. K. Burgess, L. B. DeBey, N. R. Schmidt, H. E. Froehlich, C. Wagner, et al. 2015. “Global Change and Local Solutions: Tapping the Unrealized Potential of Citizen Science for Biodiversity Research.” Biological Conservation 181 (January): 236–44.
“West Cape Howe.” 2017. https://parks.dpaw.wa.gov.au/park/west-cape-howe.