To estimate the potential impact on fungi of oil palm related deforestation, previous studies on analysed species range data for mammals and birds were effected which can be as a guideline for fungi kingdom (Jenkins et al. 2013; Pimm et al., 2014). As these studies point out, the risk of extinction is more accurately determined by looking at impacts of development on small-ranged and threatened species rather than total number of species. Therefore, the number of small-ranged and threatened species with baseline oil palm vulnerable forests, as determined by the analysis above.
Assessment on the impacts of oil palm on recent deforestation and biodiversity loss. The percent increase in FAO total oil palm planted area from 1989–2013 by country and estimated percent of oil palm planted area coming from deforestation since 1989 (Vijay et al.,2016)
1) Indonesia: 91.7% increase in planted area and 53.8% of area from deforestation.
2) Malaysia: 63.3% increase in planted area and 39.6% of area from deforestation.
3) Thailand: 85.5% increase in planted area and 0.0% of area from deforestation.
4) Papua New Guinea: 72.3 increase in planted area and 25.3% of area from deforestation.
This species have been found in regions of humid tropical forests associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. Typically, forests in Southeast Asia are dominated by dipterocarps (Fujii et. al., 2018). Oil palm has replaced tropical forests in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea being greatly expanded and this deforestation may cause decline to Calostoma insigne as well as Dipterocapceae trees. Oil palm was responsible for an average of 270,000 ha of forest conversion annually from 2000–2011 in major palm oil exporting countries (Henders et.al., 2015). More than 50% of Malaysia and Indonesia oil palm plantations in 2005 were on land that was forest in 1990 (Koh and Wilcove, 2008).
Calostoma insigne (Berk.) Massee : 39 (1888)
Calostoma (Desv., 1809)
= Gyropodium (E.Hitchc., 1825)
= Husseia (Berk., 1847)
= Mitremyces (Nees, 1817)
This ectomycorrhizal species is edible and only found in South East Asia, mainly in humid tropical rainforests associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. In addition, this genus is limited found in South East Asia (Döring, 2015) and have been described found from Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra, New Guinea), Malaysia and Thailand. This species is widely consumed in Thailand and this may reduce the population in future. Tropical rainforests with Dipterocarpaceae trees have been reduced due to Oil palm planting in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papau New Guinea.
Calostoma insigne is found in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Papue New Guinea. The distribution of species is limited in Southeast Asia and have been described from three localities of Indonesia in Borneo, Java and Sumatra. Have been reported found in Australia but not sure if the species is same with Southeast Asia (Doring, 2015). There are no reports of Calostoma spp. from Africa or Europe.
The species is ectomycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with Dipterocapceae trees in South East Asia. It is limited found in South East Asia (Döring, 2015) and have been described from Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra, New Guinea), Malaysia and Thailand.
This species was collected in Peninsular Malaysia at Frazier’s Hill and other records were collected in Sarawak at Gunung Gading National Park (Malaysia). In Thailand, this species widely collected in Sisaket province or forest areas in Northeast. However, the forests included several potential ectomycorrhizal hosts could provide a better habitat for this species.
Population trend is unclear, but old growth forest in Malaysia, Indonesia Papua New Guinea has been seriously declined due to deforestation for oil palm plantations.
Population Trend: Deteriorating
The species is ectomycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with Dipterocarpaceae trees, typically begin their development underground and have been found in regions of humid tropical rainforests of South East Asia. Usually this species found growing along the hill with the soil and decayed leaves during rainy season. The species was shown to form ectomycorrhizae by using isotopic labeling, molecular and morphological analyses (Döring, 2015). Calostoma from Malaysia has been associated with Castanopsis species (H. Besl pers com)
High rates of forest loss for palm oil production across a range of countries and tropical rainforest especially in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papau New Guinea in Southeast Asia.
Industrial cultivation of oil palm trees has led to the deforestation, degradation of humid rainforest habitat and reduce population of Calostoma insigne associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. In Southeast Asia, Dipterocarpaceae family dominates the forest canopy and are abundant in neotropical forests (Corlett and Primack 2011).
Calostoma insigne facing a high risk of regional decline due to habitat loss or new environment of oil palm areas where it was modify an original habitat of fungus.
The Landsat TM imagery to observe any changes in land use and oil palm. In addition, the government start concerned about many of the old growth forests in South East Asia and some areas are reserved as national parks or other forest reserves.
Association between dipterocarps tree and fungus in humid rainforest of Southeast Asia, humus profile and temperature or season analysis.
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