• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Calostoma insigne (Berk.) Massee

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Scientific name
Calostoma insigne
(Berk.) Massee
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Andrew Anak Ngadin
Andrew Anak Ngadin
Anders Dahlberg, Gregory Mueller
Anders Dahlberg, SuSee Lee
Else Vellinga

Assessment Notes

To estimate the potential impact on fungi of oil palm related deforestation, previous studies on analysed species range data for mammals and birds were effected which can be as a guideline for fungi kingdom (Jenkins et al. 2013; Pimm et al., 2014). As these studies point out, the risk of extinction is more accurately determined by looking at impacts of development on small-ranged and threatened species rather than total number of species. Therefore, the number of small-ranged and threatened species with baseline oil palm vulnerable forests, as determined by the analysis above.

Assessment on the impacts of oil palm on recent deforestation and biodiversity loss. The percent increase in FAO total oil palm planted area from 1989–2013 by country and estimated percent of oil palm planted area coming from deforestation since 1989 (Vijay et al.,2016)

1) Indonesia: 91.7% increase in planted area and 53.8% of area from deforestation.

2) Malaysia: 63.3% increase in planted area and 39.6% of area from deforestation.

3) Thailand: 85.5% increase in planted area and 0.0% of area from deforestation.

4) Papua New Guinea: 72.3 increase in planted area and 25.3% of area from deforestation.


This species have been found in regions of humid tropical forests associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. Typically, forests in Southeast Asia are dominated by dipterocarps (Fujii et. al., 2018). Oil palm has replaced tropical forests in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea being greatly expanded and this deforestation may cause decline to Calostoma insigne as well as Dipterocapceae trees. Oil palm was responsible for an average of 270,000 ha of forest conversion annually from 2000–2011 in major palm oil exporting countries (Henders et.al., 2015). More than 50% of Malaysia and Indonesia oil palm plantations in 2005 were on land that was forest in 1990 (Koh and Wilcove, 2008).

Taxonomic notes

Calostoma insigne (Berk.) Massee : 39 (1888)

Calostoma (Desv., 1809)

= Gyropodium (E.Hitchc., 1825)
= Husseia (Berk., 1847)
= Mitremyces (Nees, 1817)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This ectomycorrhizal species (Calostoma insigne) is edible and only found in South East Asia, mainly in humid tropical rainforests associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. In addition, this genus is limited found in South East Asia (Döring, 2015) and have been described found from Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra), Papua New Guinea, Malaysia and Thailand. This species is widely consumed in Thailand and this may reduce the population in future. Tropical rainforests with Dipterocarpaceae trees have been reduced due to Oil palm planting in Malaysia, Indonesia, South of Thailand and Papau New Guinea.

Geographic range

Calostoma insigne is found in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The distribution of species is limited in Southeast Asia and have been described from three localities of Indonesia in Borneo, Java and Sumatra. Have been reported found in Australia but not sure if the species is same with Southeast Asia (Doring, 2015). There are no reports of Calostoma spp. from Africa or Europe.

Population and Trends

The species is ectomycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with Dipterocapceae trees in South East Asia. It is limited found in South East Asia (Döring, 2015) and have been described from Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra, New Guinea), Malaysia and Thailand.

This species was collected in Peninsular Malaysia at Frazier’s Hill and other records were collected in Sarawak at Gunung Gading National Park (Malaysia). In Thailand, this species widely collected in Sisaket province or forest areas in Northeast. However, the forests included several potential ectomycorrhizal hosts could provide a better habitat for this species.

Population trend is unclear, but old growth forest in Malaysia, Indonesia Papua New Guinea has been seriously declined due to deforestation for oil palm plantations.


Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

The species is ectomycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with Dipterocarpaceae trees, typically begin their development underground and have been found in regions of humid tropical rainforests of South East Asia. Usually this species found growing along the hill with the soil and decayed leaves during rainy season. The species was shown to form ectomycorrhizae by using isotopic labeling, molecular and morphological analyses (Döring, 2015). Calostoma from Malaysia has been associated with Castanopsis species (H. Besl pers com)

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


High rates of forest loss for palm oil production across a range of countries and tropical rainforest especially in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papau New Guinea in Southeast Asia.

Industrial cultivation of oil palm trees has led to the deforestation, degradation of humid rainforest habitat and reduce population of Calostoma insigne associated with tree species from the family Dipterocarpaceae. In Southeast Asia, Dipterocarpaceae family dominates the forest canopy and are abundant in neotropical forests (Corlett and Primack 2011).

Calostoma insigne facing a high risk of regional decline due to habitat loss or new environment of oil palm areas where it was modify an original habitat of fungus.

Natural system modificationsAir-borne pollutantsTemperature extremes

Conservation Actions

The Landsat TM imagery to observe any changes in land use and oil palm. In addition, the government start concerned about many of the old growth forests in South East Asia and some areas are reserved as national parks or other forest reserves.

Education & awarenessLaw & policy

Research needed

Association between dipterocarps tree and fungus in humid rainforest of Southeast Asia, humus profile and temperature or season analysis.

Population size, distribution & trendsConservation PlanningMonitoring

Use and Trade


1. Arora D. (1986). Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. p. 715. ISBN 0-89815-169-4. Google Books
2. Calostoma (Desv., 1809) in Döring M (2015). English Wikipedia - Species Pages. Wikimedia Foundation. Checklist Dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/c3kkgh accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-02-21.
3. Koh LP, Wilcove DS. Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conservation letters. 2008;1(2):60–4.
4. Henders S, Persson UM, Kastner T. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities. Environmental Research Letters. 2015;10(12):125012.
5. Fujii K., Kaoru S., Tomoaki K., Kanehiro I., Turner B.L. (2018) Plant–soil interactions maintain biodiversity and functions of tropical forest ecosystems. Current Tropics in Ecology. 33:1, pp 149–160.
6. Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R, Brooks TM, Gittleman JL, Joppa LN, et al. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science. 2014;344(6187):1246752.
7. Jenkins CN, Pimm SL, Joppa LN. Global patterns of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013;110(28)
8. Vijay V, Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Smith SJ (2016) The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159668

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted