• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Amanita aporema Boedijn

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Scientific name
Amanita aporema
Author
Boedijn
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c, A4c
Proposed by
SuSee Lee
Assessors
SuSee Lee
Editors
Gregory Mueller, Cherdchai Phosri
Contributors
Annya Ambrose, Amy Choong, Angeles De Leon, Gerhard Kost, Siti Nordahliawate Mohamed Sidique, Gregory Mueller, Andrew Anak Ngadin, Cherdchai Phosri, Olivier Raspé, Rosnida Tajuddin

Assessment Notes

This ectomycorrhizal fungus is associated with members of the Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae, important timber tree families in lowland rain forests of South East Asia. Areas of lowland rain forest, however, are decreasing rapidly due to logging and land-use changes, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Amanita aporema is categorized as A2c because it is inferred or suspected that its population has decreased in the past due to habitat loss and degradation. It is also categorized as A4c because it is inferred, projected or suspected that its population has decreased over the past and will continue to decrease in the future due to continuing loss of forest and forest degradation.

Justification

Over the last 50 years, Indonesia has lost more than 72% of its intact forest due to logging, burning, degradation and/or conversion into other land uses such as oil palm and timber plantations. In Malaysia, Google Map detected a loss of about 14% forest cover between 2002 and 2012 which was partly offset by a 25,978 sq km gain in vegetation cover resulting from natural recovery, reforestation, and establishment of industrial timber and oil palm plantations.  Forest loss in both these countries has mainly occurred in lowland rain forest dominated by members of the ectomycorrhizal Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae. Amanita aporema is ectomycorrhizal with Dipterocarps and members of the Fagaceae and has only been found in lowland rain forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. It would thus be negatively impacted by the loss of these forests.


Taxonomic notes

Amanita aporema is quite similar to and can be
misidentified as A. princeps. Both species are associated
with Dipterocarps in Southeast Asia.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This ectomycorrhizal fungus is associated with members of the Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae, important timber tree families in lowland rain forests of South East Asia. Areas of lowland rain forest, however, are decreasing rapidly due to logging and land-use changes, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia.


Geographic range

So far this fungus has only been found growing in association with Dipterocarps in lowland rain forests of Sumatra, Indonesia and Peninsular Malaysia. In Indonesia, the fungus was found in 1924 at about 1000 m asl, Batang Paloepoeh, West Sumatra and has not been reported since. In Malaysia, it has been found in lowland rain forest dominated by Dipterocarps in the states of Selangor and Johor in the peninsula. It is not known whether it is present in the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.


Population and Trends

Over the last 50 years, Indonesia has lost more than 72% of its intact forest due to logging, burning, degradation and/or conversion into other land uses such as oil palm and timber plantations (Greenpeace, undated). In Malaysia, Google Map detected a loss of about 14% forest cover between 2002 and 2012 which was partly offset by a 25,978 sq km gain in vegetation cover resulting from natural recovery, reforestation, and establishment of industrial timber and oil palm plantations (Butler, 2013).  Forest loss in both these countries has mainly occurred in lowland rain forest dominated by members of the ectomcorrhizal Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae. Amanita aporema is ectomycorrhizal with Dipterocarps and members of the Fagaceae and has only been found in lowland rain forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. It would thus be negatively impacted by the loss of these forests.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Solitary or growing in small groups on the ground in lowland rain forest, ectomycorrhizal with members of the Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Areas of lowland rain forests in Indonesia and Malaysia are decreasing and under threat from logging and conversion into oil palm and fast-growing exotic tree plantations.

Agro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsScale Unknown/UnrecordedUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Conservation Actions

Some protected forest areas are already in place, e.g. national parks, forest reserves, etc.  Fragmentation of lowland forest should be avoided and more areas of good quality forest need to be conserved and/or protected.

Resource & habitat protectionSite/area managementInternational levelNational level

Research needed

Intensive and long-term fungal surveys and inventories are needed in the region to obtain more information on the occurrence and distribution of this fungus (and others).

Population size, distribution & trendsPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

Not used or traded.


Bibliography

Boedijn KB. 1951. Notes on Indonesian fungi. The genus Amanita. Sydowia 5:317–327.
Li-Ping Tang, Su-See Lee, Nian-Kai Zeng, Qing Cai, Ping Zhang & Zhu L. Yang (2017): Notes on Amanita section Caesareae from Malaysia, Mycologia, DOI:10.1080/00275514.2017.1394789.
Butler AR. 2013. Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest map. https://news.mongabay.com/2013/11/malaysia-has-the-worlds-highest-deforestation-rate-reveals-google-forest-map/
Greenpeace, undated.  Indonesia forests, defending the paradise forests from paper and palm oil companies. https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/forests/indonesia/


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted