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Amanita aporema Boedijn

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Scientific name
Amanita aporema
Author
Boedijn
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-07-26
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2c+4c
Assessors
Lee, S.S.
Reviewers
Ngadin, A.A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/155281486/155281497

Justification

Over the last 50 years, Indonesia has lost more than 72% of its intact forest due to logging, burning, degradation and/or conversion into other land uses such as oil palm and timber plantations. In Malaysia, Google Map detected a loss of about 14% forest cover between 2002 and 2012 which was partly offset by a 25,978 sq km gain in vegetation cover resulting from natural recovery, reforestation, and establishment of industrial timber and oil palm plantations. Forest loss in both these countries has mainly occurred in lowland rain forest dominated by members of the ectomycorrhizal Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae. Amanita aporema is ectomycorrhizal with Dipterocarps and members of the Fagaceae and has only been found in lowland rain forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. It would thus be negatively impacted by the loss of these forests. This species therefore qualifies for Vulnerable A2c+4c as it has a suspected past and ongoing population decline of at least 30% within 50 years.

Geographic range

So far this fungus has only been found growing in association with Dipterocarps in lowland rain forests of Sumatra, Indonesia and Peninsular Malaysia. In Indonesia, the fungus was found in 1924 at about 1000 m asl, at Batang Paloepoeh (present spelling Batang Palupuh), West Sumatra and has not been reported since. In Malaysia, it has been found in lowland rain forest dominated by Dipterocarps in the states of Selangor and Johor in the peninsula. It is not known whether it is present in the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

Population and Trends

Over the last 50 years, Indonesia has lost more than 72% of its intact forest due to logging, burning, degradation and/or conversion into other land uses such as oil palm and timber plantations (Greenpeace undated). In Malaysia, Google Map detected a loss of about 14% forest cover between 2002 and 2012 which was partly offset by a 25,978 sq km gain in vegetation cover resulting from natural recovery, reforestation, and establishment of industrial timber and oil palm plantations (Butler 2013). Forest loss in both these countries has mainly occurred in lowland rain forest dominated by members of the ectomcorrhizal Dipterocarpaceae and Fagaceae. Amanita aporema is ectomycorrhizal with Dipterocarps and members of the Fagaceae and has only been found in lowland rain forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. It would thus be negatively impacted by the loss of these forests. It is suspected that the population decline of this species exceeds 30%, but probably does not exceed 50%, within the past 50 years (3 generation lengths of this species), and that this decline is ongoing.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is ectomycorrhizal, generally forming symbiotic associations with Dipterocarpaceae trees. It typically begins development underground, and has been found in regions of humid tropical rainforests of South East Asia. It occurs solitarily or growing in small groups on the ground in lowland rain forest.

Threats

Areas of lowland rain forests in Indonesia and Malaysia are decreasing and under threat from logging and conversion into oil palm and fast-growing exotic tree plantations.

Conservation Actions

Some protected forest areas are already in place, e.g. national parks, forest reserves, etc.  Fragmentation of lowland forest should be avoided and more areas of good quality forest need to be conserved and/or protected.

Intensive and long-term fungal surveys and inventories are needed in the region to obtain more information on the occurrence and distribution of this fungus (and others).

Use and Trade

This species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Lee, S.S. 2019. Amanita aporema. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T155281486A155281497. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T155281486A155281497.en .Downloaded on 1 February 2021

Country occurrence