• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • CRPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Mundkurella heptapleuri Thirum.

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Scientific name
Mundkurella heptapleuri
Author
Thirum.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Urocystidales
Family
Urocystidaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
CR D
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Assessors
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Craig Hilton-Taylor

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Mundkurella heptapleuri is a host specific smut fungus which produces a systemic infection on Schefflera venulosa (syn. Heptapleurum venulosum, Araliaceae) (Vánky 1990). It develops sori in the fruits, stems, petioles, and leaves of. The host plant, S. venulosa, is endemic to India, with distribution restricted to South India.

The smut fungus, M. heptapleuri, is collected only once, in 1942, found on a tree in the Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore, Karnataka State (Thirumalachar 1944). However, the infected tree, from which the collection was done, was felled (Vánky 2007, 2011).

Due to the fact that Mundkurella heptapleuri is described from a country with intensive mycological investigations, and particularly, with three published monographs of the smut fungi (Mundkur & Thirumalachar 1952; Vánky 2007; Gandhe 2011), we can assume that from 1944 onwards enough attempts have been made for finding additional localities of this remarkable fungus (cf. Sharma 2012). Before this species can be evaluated as extinct, there must be explicit evidence of unsuccessful searches on host trees. In the meantime, we assume that no more than fifty smutted trees still occur in the wild. The smut fungus fulfills D-criterion and meets CR.

Preliminary red-list assessment: CR D (Critically Endangered)


Geographic range

Mundkurella heptapleuri is collected only once, in 1942, found on a tree in the Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore, Karnataka State, India. However, the infected tree, from which the collection was done, was felled.


Population and Trends

There is no specific information on population size or trends. It is impossible to state anything about trends based on observations from a single spot.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Mundkurella heptapleuri is a smut fungus which develops sori in the fruits, stems, petioles, and leaves of Schefflera venulosa, an Indian endemic tree species, distributed only in South India. The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant.

ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The infected tree, from which the only collection was done, was felled.

Biological resource useLogging & wood harvestingMotivation Unknown/Unrecorded

Conservation Actions

Land/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further search of a new locality of this species must be encouraged.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Gandhe, R.V. 2011. Ustilaginales of India. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

Mundkur, B.B. and Thirumalachar, M.J. 1952. Ustilaginales of India. C.M.I., Kew.

Sharma, N.D. 2012. Smut Fungi of the World. Book review. Current Science 102: 1316–1318.

Thirumalachar, M.J. 1944. A new genus of smuts. Mycologia 36: 591–597.

Vánky, K. 1990. The genus Mundkurella (Ustilaginales). Mycological Research 94: 269–273.

Vánky, K. 2007. Smut fungi of the Indian Subcontinent. Polish Botanical Studies 26: 1–265.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut Fungi of the World. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.


Citation
Denchev, C.M. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Mundkurella heptapleuri Thirum. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/288459/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted