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  • Under Assessment
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Haploporus odorus (Sommerf.) Bondartsev & Singer

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Scientific name
Haploporus odorus
Author
(Sommerf.) Bondartsev & Singer
Common names
Diamond willow fungus
doftticka
nordlig aniskjuke
Aniseed polypore
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Polyporaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c+3c+4c
Proposed by
Brenda Callan
Assessors
Brenda Callan
Contributors
Michael Krikorev
Comments etc.
Brenda Callan
Reviewers
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

SUGGEST NT A2c+3c+4c
The population of mature individuals worldwide may be as high as 200,000 due to the large areas of willows in wetland boreal regions of countries where the fungus is known to occur. However, the current trend is considered to be in decline of up to 15-30%, due to a number of contributing factors:

forest management, ungulate grazing, natural disturbances (forest fires), Intensive other natural resource development, and drainage to produce agricultural land. Climate change also has a potential to cause decrease in habitat for the fungus, due to increased herbivory by mammals on young growth as willow host populations migrate further north, potentially restricting the number of trees that achieve mature growth (Winder et al. 2011). Likewise increased melting of permafrost will cause initial flooding and inundation of sloughs and bogs that host willow trees encircle, before transitioning to drier conditions (Smith, 2010).

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy
Polyporus odorus Sommerf.
Trametes odora (Sommerf.) Fr.
Fomitopsis odora (Sommerf.) P. Karst.

Relatively large (up to 15 cm broad) grey to white polypore fruiting bodies on the trunks of living Salix, causing a white rot of the wood.
Fruiting bodies have a strong vanilla/anise odor that can be detected from distances up to 10 m away. They remain strongly fragrant years after drying.
In the field, the somewhat similar Trametes suaveolens can be distinguished by the fact that it has only a fleeting anise odor that disappears after drying. Microscopically, H. odorus is distinctive because of its asperulate (tiny warts) dextrinoid (staining brown in iodine) basidiospores.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Haploporus odorus is a boreal is a saprotrophic fungus large white boreal wood decay polypore (shelf) fungus that is found on the trunks of a single tree host species (Salix) with very few exceptions. It causes wood decay (white rot), and is easily identified by its strikingly strong sweet smell of anise that is evident many meters from the fruiting body. The population of H. odorus is estimated to be in decline due to ungulate grazing, natural disturbances (forest fires), intensive forest management, drainage to produce agricultural land and melting permafrost. It is listed in red data books for regions of Russia, listed as vulnerable (A2C) in Sweden, near threatened in Norway, and considered rare in China.


Geographic range

Circumboreal but in North America only known from scattered sites in western Canada (Southeastern Manitoba to north central Saskatchewan, northwestern Alberta, south central Saskatchewan, Northwest Territories, and northern British Columbia). All collections have been recorded north of 52 degrees N in Canada, except for two sites in central Manitoba, near its eastern range in this country. Two questionable records have been documented from the United States (Indiana, 1892, Montana, 1907), although it might be expected to occur in Alaska. In Europe, present in southeast Norway (for a map, see Ryvarden 1993), northeastern Sweden, Finland, and Russia, where it is documented in 18 administrative regions   and Poland (for a detailed map, see Niemelä 1971:239). Also collected in Changbaishan Nature Reserve of northeastern China (Dai, 2003). There is a questionable record from Armenia, on Acer, from Ijevan floristic region which should be confirmed.
Earlier published record of occurrence in England (Ing 1992) was based on a misidentification.


Population and Trends

The current trend is considered to be in decline of up to 15-30%. In Europe, (Fraiture and Otto, 2015), distribution is almost exclusively boreal, with many records from Norway, Sweden, and Finland and two from Poland.  Multiple collection records have been documented from 18 administrative regions of Russia. There is a single published record from Northeast China (Dai, 2003) where it is considered rare, but a total number of individuals in Canada and Europe and Russia could be as high as 200,000, if calculations such as those used by Sweden are used to extrapolate over each country’s relative size where the habitat for this fungus (willow) occurs in boreal regions.  Ungulate grazing, natural disturbances (forest fires), intensive forest management, mining, and drainage to produce agricultural land have all contributed to and will continue to contribute to declining populations. Climate change also has a potential to cause decrease in habitat for the fungus, due to increased herbivory by mammals on young growth as willow host populations migrate further north, potentially restricting the number of trees that achieve mature growth (Winder et al. 2011). Likewise increased melting of permafrost will cause initial flooding and inundation of sloughs and bogs that host willow trees encircle, before transitioning to drier conditions (Smith, 2010).

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

The species has been found almost exclusively on species of Salix, with few exceptions: Populus in Alberta, Canada (DAOM 94373; Fraxinus in Manitoba, Canada (Jorgensen, 1961); Alnus, Northwest Territories, Canada, (DAOM 94371) and Prunus cerasis in Fennoscandia. It would be worthwhile to confirm the identity of these unusual records. Fruiting bodies are typically found in sunken areas (diamonds) on trunks of mature Salix trees, in low-lying areas near bogs. In Europe the habitat is described as “moist depressions in spruce dominated old-growth forests” and “undisturbed old stands along brooks”. The majority of the collections have been made in latitudes north of 52. In Fennoscandia, the host is Salix caprea. In Russia, usually associated with old forests of taiga-zone where Salix caprea is a component. The one single record from Armenia is questionable based on photograph and Prunus as host (Nanagulian, 2002)

Boreal Forest

Threats

Ungulate grazing, natural disturbances (forest fires), intensive forest management, mining, drainage to produce agricultural land have all contributed to and will continue to contribute to declining populations via habitat reduction. Harvesting by First Nations for traditional uses are unlikely to interfere with sustainable population levels.Climate change also has a potential to cause decrease in habitat for the fungus, due to increased herbivory by mammals on young growth as willow host populations migrate further north, potentially restricting the number of trees that achieve mature growth (Winder et al. 2011). Likewise increased melting of permafrost will cause initial flooding and inundation of sloughs and bogs that host willow trees encircle, before transitioning to drier conditions (Smith, 2010).

Logging & wood harvestingFire & fire suppressionAbstraction of surface water (agricultural use)Habitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

In Canada, the traditional uses of the dried fruiting bodies by First Nations is acknowledged, and habitat of “diamond willow trees” is preserved and designated as sensitive. Most recently, sensitive diamond willow habitats identified by First Nations communities during consultation processes resulted in rerouting of a TransCanada natural gas pipeline near Chetwynd, BC,  by use of a road bore, running it underneath the stand rather than cutting it down. A description of this process is available at:
http://blog.transcanada.com/pipeline-project-protects-diamond-willow-fungus/
At this time the fungus is not being commercially exploited for its medicinal or traditional uses, but as it is easily cultured, it could be potentially produced via artificial inoculation of suitable host substrate, thus avoiding the need for wild harvesting.

 

 

Non-monetary values

Research needed

Confirmation of host range. Bondartzev (1950) indicated a much broader host range, but some of these records might be attributed to Trametes suaveolens (Niemela, 1971).

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation, 2015. Research of the Tlous pertaining to TransCanada’s proposed McLeod River NGTL pipeline. Submitted by ANSN Consultation Office, October 2015, support provided by Barry A. Hochstein, Four Medicines Consulting Ltd. https://docs.neb-one.gc.ca/ll-eng/llisapi.dll/Open/2837190
Blanchette, R.A. 1997. Haploporus odorus: A sacred fungus in traditional Native American culture of the northern plains. Mycologia 89(2): 233-240.
Bondartsev, A., and R. Singer. 1950. Novye daddye o trutovike Trametes odora Fr. Bot. Zurnal 35: 73-77.
Callan, B. 2000. Two web-accessible fungus databases and their relationship to a preliminary list of rare macrofungi for British Columbia. pp. 109-112 in Darling, L. (ed.) Proceedings of a conference on the biology and management of species and habitats at risk, Kamloops, BC. 15-19 Feb, 1999. Volume One. BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC, and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops BC. 490 pp.
Dai, 2003. Rare and threatened polypores in the ecosystem of Changbaishan Nature Reserve of northeastern China. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao Jun 14(6): 1015-1018 (in Chinese).
Dahlberg, A. & Cronenberg, H. 2003. 33 threatened fungi in Eurpoe. Complementary and revise information oncandidates for listing in Appendix 1 of the Bern Convention. Document T-PVS (2001) 34 rev.2. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European Council for the Conservation of Fungi (ECCF). 82. pp.
Eriksson, J. 1958. Studies in the Heterobasidiomycetes and Homobasidiomycetes-Aphyllophorales of Muddus National Park in North Sweden.
Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 16:1-172.
Fraiture, A., and Otto, P. (eds.) 2015. Distribution, ecology and status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Meise, Botanic Garden Meise. Scripta Botanica Belgica Vol. 53. 247 pp.
Ing, B. 1992. A provisional red data list of British Fungi. Mycologist 6: 124-128
Jorgensen, E. 1961. III Year forestry student collects wood-decaying fungus yet unreported from North America. The Annual Ring, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto.
Mirck, J.  and Schroeder, W. 2013. Composition, stand structure, and biomass estimates of “willow rings” on the Canadian Prairies. Bioenergy Research 6: 864-876.
Nanagulian, S. 2002. Some dates about distribution and conservation of threatened mushrooms in Armenia. http://www.wsl.ch/eccf/Armenia.pdf
Niemela, T. 1971. On Fennoscandian Polypores. 1. Haploporus odorus (Sommerf.) Bond. & Sing. Ann. Bot. Fennici 8: 237-244.
Popov, in European Council for the Conservation of fungi. Newsletter 15-Summer 2010.
Ryvarden, L., and R.L. Gilbertson. 1993. European polypores. Part 1. Abortiporus - Lindtneria. Fungiflora, Oslo. 387 pp.
Smith, S. 2010. Trends in permafrost conditions and ecology in northern Canada. Canadian biodiversity: ecosystem status and trends 2010. Technical Thematic Report No. 9. Published by the Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers.
Winder, R., Nelson, E.A., and Beardmore, T. 2011. Ecological implications for assisted migration in Canadian forests. The Forestry Chronicle 87(6): 713-744.

Please also add two contributors:

Dr. Sergey Bolshakov
Russian Academy of Sciences
Komarov Botanical Institute
Moscow, Moscow, Russia
s.bolshakov.ru@gmail.com


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted