- Scientific name
- Amylocystis lapponica
- (Romell) Bondartsev & Singer
- Common names
- tvarožník laponský
- późnoporka czerwieniejąca (amylek lapoński)
- Braunfleckender Saftporling
- modralka laponská
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- Dahlberg, A. & Ainsworth, A.M.
- Krisai-Greilhuber, I.
is a widespread circumboreal wood-decaying fungus in coniferous forest ecosystems in Asia, Europe and North America. It grows in old-growth humid forest within coarse logs of predominantly Norway spruce, Sitka spruce and Engelmann spruce. Amylocystis lapponica
is nationally red-listed in northern Europe (Fennoscandia) as its habitat is in decline due to clearcutting and it is used as an indicator species for old-growth forests. In North America, there is no evidence of decline and the status in boreal Asia is unclear. Therefore, it is globally assessed as Least Concern.
Records in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges (in California, Oregon and Washington) have been confirmed to be conspecific (M. Ainsworth pers. comm. 2019).
has a circumboral distribution; Asia, Europe and North America. Outside the boreal zone, appropriate habitat is sparse. It is reported from a few central European countries and the Changbaishan Nature Reserve in north-eastern China.
Population and Trends
In Europe, A. lapponica occurs almost exclusively in boreal old-growth forests with Picea abies. The majority of known European localities are situated in Sweden and Finland, albeit it is likely that the population is larger in European Russia. The number of known localities in Europe was estimated as 1000 in 2015 (Fraiture and Otto 2015). A large portion of the appropriate habitat of old-growth forests for A. lapponica have been cut during the last half century due to forestry in northern Europe and the major part of remaining appropriate forests is expected to disappear within the next 50 years. Not or only sparsely recorded in managed forests. In Finland and Sweden, the populations are estimated to have declined by >15% since 1985. In Norway it is assessed to have declined by >30% since 1985. It has not been assessed for national red-listing in Russia, but is included in several regional Russian Red Lists, e.g. the Sverdlovsk Region (Shiryaev et al. 2010) where it is assessed as VU. Its status in the boreal parts of Asia is poorly known.
In North America it is widespread and locally common, occurring across the northern latitudes, and south in the mountains. It is currently (2018) known from ~300 locations, but is considered under reported, and a large amount of suitable habitat has not been surveyed for this species. In north-east North America it occurs both on native spruce forests, and in some Norway spruce plantations. There are scattered reports (on Mycoportal) from Quebec and Ontario; the Canadian National Mycological Herbarium (DAOM) has not been digitized, and accessible data is lacking. It occurs in the Rocky Mountains, from Arizona and New Mexico, USA in the south, north into British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. It also is fairly common on the Pacific Coast, from Humboldt County, California into south-central Alaska (roughly following the range of Sitka Spruce).
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is a wood-decomposing fungus causing a brown rot. It was originally described (from Lappland) on Abies
although nowadays in Europe it is found almost exclusively in coarse fallen logs of Norway spruce (Picea abies
), larch (Larix
) and rarely on pine (Pinus
) in uneven-aged virgin old growth forests and forests historically subjected to selective cutting with a long continuity of logs. It occurs in forests with high humidity, typically spruce swamp forest, herb-rich mesic-moist spruce forest and mountain spruce forests. It is used as an indicator species for old-growth forests and woodland key habitats. It does not seem to be present in managed forests in Europe. The sporocarp is annual while the mycelium is long-lived and potentially present in logs for many decades. The mycelia of A. lapponica
seem largely to be located in the inner parts logs. In North America it grows on Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis
) on the Pacific coast, and in the Rocky Mountains from Arizona north into Canada; especially on Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii
). It is also found on Abies magnifica
in the Sierra Nevada.
There are some apparent ecological differences between European and N. American populations. In N. America it occurs in Picea
plantations and whereas it seems to fruit late in the year in Europe, it is a spring fruiter (soon after snowmelt) in some areas of N. America.
The main threat is clear cutting and transforming of old growth forests with high amount of coarse woody debris into managed forests with shorter rotation times and few of coarse logs. Forest certification recommends certain conservation considerations for forest management, however implementation of these is only expected to slightly diminish the expected continued large decline in the population of A. lapponica
. There is no immediate threat in North America.
For the conservation of the species in Europe it is recommended setting aside forest reserves occupied by A. lapponica
in which there is a continuous formation of coarse dead wood (logs) of Norway spruce. If site protection is not possible, A. lapponica
may survive clearcutting if large areas (>0.5 ha) with dead wood are set aside for nature conservation within the area to be cut. Similarly, restricted selected cutting management may be the next best option if sufficient areas with dead wood are set aside for nature conservation.
Use and Trade
No uses are known for the species.
Source and Citation
Dahlberg, A. & Ainsworth, A.M. 2019. Amylocystis lapponica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T58521132A58521155. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T58521132A58521155.en
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