The habitat where this wood-inhabiting species occurs is predominantly old-growth coniferous boreal forest with an abundant supply of coarse woody debris (CWD) of Norway spruce. Outside protected areas, such CWD is continuously disappearing due to clear cutting. The species does not seem to be able to re-colonise in managed forest, probably due to lack of appropriate types of coarse dead wood, unfavourable habitat conditions, its relative rarity and hence reduced fitness. Red-listed in seven European countries.
Preliminary global red-list assessment; NT close to VU (A2c+3c+4c), population decline approaching 30 % during the last 30 years and the decline is expected to continue at the same speed in the next 30 years. The past, ongoing and expected decline may exceed 30%, if so VU. Evaluation period (= 3 generations) is considered to be 30 years for A. lapponica as recommended for wood-inhabiting species on Norway spruce by Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011. It has a Europan (and global) population that exceeds 20 000 mature individuals. Cause of decline: Clear cutting and transformation of its main habitat, old growth forests of Norway spruce with large amounts of CWD, into managed forests with shorter rotation times and significantly reduced volumes of appropriate types of dead wood. The population decline is estimated/inferred from habitat decline. Only a small percentage of the global distribution of appropriate coniferous forest is protected. These fragments, free from forestry management, offer potential refugia for A. lapponica. It is not, or only sparsely, recorded in managed forests.
Present lack of knowledge; How frequent and widely distributed is it in north America and Asia?It appear to be reported from plantations in NAm.
The boreal parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Reported from a few central European countries and the Changbaishan Nature Reserve in northeastern China.
The species occurs exclusively in boreal old-growth forests with Picea abies. The majority of European localities are in Sweden and Finland although it is possible that there are many more sites in Russia. The number of currently known localities in Europe is 1000 (from ECCF fungal mapping project, Otto, unpublished 2011). The status in the boreal parts of Asia is…. (need to be checked). In North America, it is regarded as “particularly common on spruce logs” and is recorded within 20 states/provinces (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986). Outside the boreal zone, the habitat and populations are sparse. In Finland and Sweden, the populations are estimated to have declined by >15 and >30% respectively since 1980. In Norway it is assessed to have declined by >50% since 1980. Not red-list evaluated in Russia, but included in regional Russian Red Lists, such as that for the Sverdlovsk Region (Shiryaev et al. 2010) where it is assessed as VU A2c; C2a(i). Locations with this species are threatened by clearcutting of old-growth forests of Norway spruce with large amounts of and the fungus does not seem to manage to re-colonise in managed forest, due to decreasing amounts of appropriate types of coarse dead wood and forest habitat.
Population Trend: Deteriorating
A wood-decomposing fungus forming brown rot. It grows almost exclusively in coarse (large diameter) fallen logs of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in old growth forests, typically in pristine forests or forests where selective cutting might have taken place for many hundreds of years if coarse dead wood has been continuously present. It does not seem to be present in managed forests in Europe. It occurs in areas with high humidity, characteristically in spruce swamp forest, herb-rich mesic-moist spruce forest and mountain spruce forests. It is used as an indicator species in the woodland key habitat inventory in the northern countries as well as by by the “one step ahead” approach to identify valuable forest for nature conservation initiated in the early 1990s. Although the sporocarp is annual, the mycelium is considered to be long-lived, probably surviving for many decades. There are some apparent ecological differences between European and N. American populations. In N. America it occurs in Picea plantations and whereas it seems to fruit late in the year in Europe, it is a spring fruiter (soon after snowmelt) in N. America. Insufficient DNA barcode (ITS) sequences in GenBank and UNITE to resolve whether there is taxonomically significant divergence of European and N. American populations.
Clear cutting and transformation of its main habitat, old growth forests of Norway spruce with high amount of CWD, into managed forests with shorter rotation times and significantly less amount of appropriate types of dead wood. The population decline estimated/inferred from habitat decline. Only a small percentage of the global distribution of appropriate coniferous forests is protected and not subjected to modern forest management. Hence a large portion, probably of appropriate habitat have disappeared during the last 50 years of forest management in northern Europe and the major part of remaining appropriate forests is expected to disappear within the next 50 years. Not or only sparsely recorded in managed forests. The FSC recommends certain conservation considerations for forest management, however implementation of these is only expected to slightly diminish the expected continued large decline in the population of A. lapponica.
Setting aside forest reserves occupied by A. lapponica in which there is a continous formation of coarse dead wood (logs) of Norway spruce. If site protection is not possible, A. lapponica may survive clearcutting if large areas (>0.5 ha) with dead wood are set aside for nature conservation within the area to be cut. Similarly, restricted selected cutting management may be the next best option if sufficent areas with dead wood are set aside for nature conservation.
Dahlberg A & Croneborg H. 2003. 33 threatened fungi in Europe. Complementary and revised information on candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention T-PVS (2001) 34 rev 2.
Dahlberg A & Mueller G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16
Dai Y. 2003. Rare and threathened polypores in the ecosystem of Changbaishan Nature Reserve of northeastern China [Article in Chinese]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao (The Journal of Applied Ecology). 14(6):1015-8
Gilbertson RL. & Ryvarden L. 1986. North American Polypores vol1. Fungiflora, Oslo.
Nitare J. 2010. Signalarter. 4th edn. Indikatorer på skyddsvärd skog. (Indicator Species. Indicators of forests of conservation interest. Flora of cryptogams. In Swedish with an English summary). Skogsstyrelsen (Swedish Forest Agencey). Jönköping, Sweden
Otto P, 2011. Ecology and chorology of 51 selected fungal species. Draft, Leipzig (unpublished)
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