Gongronella butleri (Lendn.) Peyronel & Dal Vesco, Allionia 2: 370 (1955).
Colony white, reverse cream, after 7days in BDA at 28 °C. Sporangiophores hyaline, 30–140 (–300) × 2–5 μm, smooth- or slightly rough-walled, with a septum below the apophysis, simple branched. Sporangia hyaline, globose, 10–25 (–35) μm in diam, wall vitreous in aspect. Columellae hemispherical, some globose, or dome-shaped 3.4–9 μm in diam, smooth-walled. Apophyses hemispherical or bell-shaped. Sporangiospores hyaline, bean-shaped, oval, smooth-walled, 2–3.8 × 1.5–2 (–3.2) μm. Heterothallic. Zygosporangia not observed.
We suggest this species as Least Concern (LC) due to the several records worldwide.
The species in known in 13 countries. In Brazil, it is known in 3 of the 26 states.
There are about 366 records of this species in GBIF, mostly in Australia.
Commonly isolated from soil. In Brazil, the species is found in Atlantic Forest and Caatinga.
In Brazil, the species is found in Atlantic Forest and Caatinga.
The species has a fragmented distribution. Studies about its population distribution are needed.
Gongronella specimens are widely used in the biotechnology industry due to their ability to produce enzymes (STREIT et al., 2009), such as β-glucosidase and xylanase. In addition, taxa of this genus are capable of degrading metalaxyl fungicide (MARTINS et al. 2017), and producing organic acids derived from 2 - pentenedioic acid (AKONE et al., 2014), besides the ability to increase laccase production by Coprinopsis cinerea (Schaeff.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo.
STREIT, F., KOCH, F., LARANJEIRA, M., NINOW, J. L. Production of fungal chitosan in liquid cultivation using apple pomace as substrate. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 20-25, 2009.
MARTINS, M. R., SANTOS, C., PEREIRA, P., CRUZ-MORAIS, J., LIMA, N. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. Molecules, v. 22, n. 12, p. 2225, 2017.
AKONE, S. H., RAHN, S., HENRICH, B., DALETOS, G., VARDAMIDES, J. C., NKENGFACK, A. E., PROKSCH, P. 2-Pentenedioic acid derivatives from a soil-derived fungus Gongronella butleri. Phytochemistry Letters, v. 10, p. 184-188, 2014.