• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Hygrocybe swanetica Singer

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Scientific name
Hygrocybe swanetica
Author
Singer
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN C2a(i)
Proposed by
Anna Kiyashko
Assessors
Tatyana Svetasheva
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg, Anna Kiyashko
Comments etc.
Jean Berube

Assessment Status Notes

The total number of localities (incl. unknown) is estimated to be 40. Number of mature individuals must be certainly less then 200.  Habitat declining is ongoing due to decreasing of old-growth forests (clearcutting) and decreasing of large logs, as well as disturbance of suitable habitats by road construction and other human activities.
It is preliminary assessed as En based on the C2ai criterion.

Taxonomic notes

synonym:
Pseudohygrocybe swanetica (Singer) Kovalenko (Kovalenko, 1989)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Hygrocybe swanetica is a rare mushroom species with colourful and easy recognizable appearance. It was described from Cental Caucasus (Georgia, Swaneti) and then found in several localities in Russian Western Caucasus and Russian Far East. This species restricted to old-growth or virgin Abies and mixed with Abies forests growing on the rotten wood of Abies (usually very large logs or stumps, and pieces of wood scattered around). Most known localities are situated inside protected areas, but degree of protection varies. It has never been found in managed forests. At present the large-scaled cutting of old fir forests in Russia creates a threat to species population due to fragmentation or disappearance of favourable ecotopes outside protected areas.
In Russian Federation it’s protected on regional level in three administrative units (Krasnodar territory, Adygei and Karachaevo-Cherkesia Republics). In Georgia it’s not protected.


Geographic range

Caucasus (Western and Central);  Russian Far East: southern Sakhalin, middle Sikhote-Alin, Zeya river basin.


Population and Trends

In Russia 10 localities are known. In Georgia only 1 locality (type locality) has been reported today. Hygrocybe swanetica usually forms small to large groups of fruit bodies in one locality. It’s registered almost every year in the basin of Belaya river (Russian Western Caucasus, Caucasian State reserve), in others localities the periodicity of fruiting is not studied. One of known localities (outside protected areas) is most probably destroyed due to clearcutting.
The total number of localities (incl. unknown) is estimated to be 40. Number of mature individuals must be certainly less then 200.  Habitat declining is ongoing due to decreasing of old-growth forests (clearcutting) and decreasing of large logs, as well as disturbance of suitable habitats by road construction and other human activities.
It is listed as En (C2ai).

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Hygrocybe swanetica is one of a few Hygrocybe species inhabiting rotten wood of Abies: large logs (up to 2 m in diam.), stumps, pieces of wood scattered around, sometimes soil mixed with wooden remains under the rotten log.  It was found on Abies nordmanniana in Caucasus and A. holophylla in Far East. All collections were made in old-growth mesophilous Abies and mixed with Abies forests. In Caucasus was found only in forests with tertiary relict plant species (Rhododendron ponticum, Helix colchica etc.). (reference)

Temperate Forest

Threats

The main threat is declining of old-growth forests (clearcutting) and decreasing of large logs, as well as disturbance of suitable habitats by road construction and other human activities.

Tourism & recreation areasLogging & wood harvesting

Conservation Actions

It’s protected on the regional level in three administrative units (Krasnodar territory, Adygei and Karachay-Cherkess Republic), and preserved in three state nature reserves.  Needs continued protection of all habitats, old-growth Abies forests.

Site/area protection

Research needed

Specify the exact area of occupancy. Research of individual and population size, life history and ecology as well as generation length.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Singer R. 1931. Pilze aus dem Kaukasus. II. Ein Beitrag zur Flora Swanetiens und einiger angrenzender Ta’ler // Beih. Botanischen Centralblatt. 48: 513-542.
Kovalenko A.E. Definitorium Fungorum URSS. Ordo Hygrophorales - Leningrad: “Nauka”, 1989. 175 p. [in Russian]
Plantae non vasculares, fungi et bryopsida orientis extremi rossica. Fungi. T. 3 : Ustomycetes (Ustilaginales), Basidiomycetes (Hygrophorales), Ascomycetes (Laboulbeniales - Laboulbeniaceae et Peyritschiellaceae), Zygomycetes (Entomophthorales - Entomophthoraceae), Chytridiomycetes (Blastocladiales - Coelomycetaceae) / Z.M. Azbukina, O.K. Govorova, I.V. Karatygin, A.E. Kovalenko, E.Z. Koval - SPb: “Nauka”, 1995. 383 p. [in Russian]
Red Data Book of Karachaevo-Cherkesia Republiс. Cherkessk, Nartisdat,2013. 316 p (In Russian)


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted