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Scleroderma bermudense Coker

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Scientific name
Scleroderma bermudense
Author
Coker
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Sclerodermataceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c
Proposed by
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez
Assessors
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Editors
Roberto Garibay Orijel
Contributors
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Scleroderma bermudense is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in the Caribbean. Its distribution range is limited to the dune ecosystem of the coastal line, this ecosystem is high threatened by the touristic activities and urbanization. The climate change scenario predicts, the sea level will increase, and this ecosystem will be reduced almost completely (Clark et al., 2015)

Justification

Scleroderma bermudense should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and increase of hurricanes and flooding.


Taxonomic notes

Fruitbody subglobose, subterranean until dehiscence. Grows in sandy soil. Is similar to S. geaster, however they do not share habitat, attachment to soil, and size (Coker 1939). This species was synonym of S. stellatum but it was separated as an independent species (Guzmán et al., 2004).
Other synonyms: Sclerangium bermudense (Coker) Reid, Sclerangium bermudense var. trinitensis Reid.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Scleroderma bermudense is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in the Caribbean. Its distribution range is limited to the dune ecosystem of the coastal line, this ecosystem is high threatened by the touristic activities and urbanization. Additionally, climate change scenarios predict, the sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area lost (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017). In consequence this ecosystem is in sever risk.
Scleroderma bermudense should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and increase of hurricanes and flooding.


Geographic range

Bermuda island, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, British Virgin Islands, Dominican Republic, USA: Florida, Virgin islands, Mexico: Yucatan. Senegal and Madagascar records are unconfirmed and not considered in this assessment.


Population and Trends

At least there are 30 populations around the Caribbean sea.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in dunes in coastal line

Coastal Sand Dunes

Threats

This species was described from sand dunes related to Coccoloba uvifera. Constantly this sand dunes are transformed by touristic activities. The increase in sea level will damage severely coastal ecosystems.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areas

Conservation Actions

Mitigate global warming

International level

Research needed


Use and Trade


Bibliography

Coker WC. 1939. A New Scleroderma from Bermuda. Mycologia 31: 624.
Clark PU, Church JA, Gregory JM, Payne AJ. 2015. Recent Progress in Understanding and Projecting Regional and Global Mean Sea Level Change. Current Climate Change Reports 1: 224–246.
Guzmán G, Cortés-Pérez A, Guzmán-Dávalos L, Ramírez-Guillén F, Sánchez-Jácome MDR. 2013. An emendation of Scleroderma, new records, and review of the known species in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 84: S173–S191.
Guzmán G, Ramírez-Guillén F, Miller OK, Lodge DJ, Baroni TJ. 2004. Scleroderma stellatum versus Scleroderma bermudense: The status of Scleroderma echinatum and the first record of Veligaster nitidum from the Virgin Islands. Mycologia 96: 1370–1379.
Pegler DN. 1983. Agaric flora of the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Add Series IX: 1-668.
Põlme S, Bahram M, Kõljalg U, Tedersoo, L. 2017. Biogeography and Specificity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Coccoloba uvifera. In: Tedersoo L (ed.). Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Ecological Studied vol 230. Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-56363-3
Séne S, Avril R, Chaintreuil C, Geoffroy A, Ndiaye C, Diédhiou AG, Sadio O, Courtecuisse R, Sylla SN, Selosse MA, et al. 2015. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Mycorrhiza 25: 547–559.
Séne S, Selosse MA, Forget M, Lambourdière J, Cissé K, Diédhiou AG, Rivera-Ocasio E, Kodja H, Kameyama N, Nara K, et al. 2018. A pantropically introduced tree is followed by specific ectomycorrhizal symbionts due to pseudo-vertical transmission. ISME Journal 12: 1806–1816.
Simpson, M. C. (2017). Quantification and Magnitudeof Losses and Damages Resulting from the Impacts of Climate Change: Modelling the Transformational Impacts and Costs of Sea Level Rise in the Caribbean (Key Points andSummary for Policy Makers Document).


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted