• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Boletus loyo Phillippi

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Boletus loyo
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Giuliana Furci
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval, Roberto Garibay Orijel, Camille Truong
Giuliana Furci
Comments etc.
Tor Erik Brandrud, Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Boletus loyo is an Nothofagus ectomycorrhizal with a high commercial value for this reason this specie is over-exploited. This species has a combination of threats, first is the continuous deterioration of its habitat and moreover the indiscriminate harvesting of the fungus for its high commercial value and the low information for sustainable harvesting.

The science is unclear, but for Matsutake it is demonstrated that over harvesting causes a decline in yields, whereas for Chanterelles this is not the case. The decline in the appearance of Boletus loyo seems to indicate it behaves like Matsutake.

Under the Chilean legislation there is an estimated 50% decline in habitat and EOO, although 30% can be documented. Based on this, the suggested Global RedList is Criterion A: VU A2d.

Geographic range

Area is located in south-central and austral Chile. AOO 1.500 km2. EOO 69.281 km2.
Never found in Argentina, although forests are similar.

Collected from south of Talca to Osorno.

Population and Trends

The population declined in the range of 30% - 50% in the last 50 years. This is observed through lower harvest yields based on market impressions. There are ca. 20 known localities, although more are suspected. Habitat loss and quality also account for declining populations. Further pressure and population reductions are expected in the near future, to be above 50% on this endemic species.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Boletus loyo is a Nothofagus ectomycorrhizal species, growing alone or in small groups on soil under Nothofagus. It forms basidyomes in late summer to fall.
It has been recorded in soil and litter under Nothofagus, particularly N. obliqua, N. dombeyi, N. alpina, N. glauca. It is frequently observed in Coihue-Roble forest.

ForestBoreal Forest


Its major threat is over-exploitation for human consumption. This species is an edible mushroom with a high commercial value, it is sold fresh locally, previously observed large (about 30 cm and 5 kg) and currently there are not those sizes or high abundance. Additionally, this species is associated with a reduced and fragmented Nothofagus forest. Forest fires are a growing threat due to drought. The basidiomes are harvested with mycelium attached and are smaller every year. It is possible that the decline in size and number of individuals is caused by over-harvesting, such as Matsutake.

Human intrusions & disturbanceWork & other activities

Conservation Actions

Understanding adequate harvest methods for low impact on the mycelium is currently underway.

Research needed

Biology of specie

ResearchTaxonomyLife history & ecologyMonitoring

Use and Trade


BARRERA E (1984) Catálogo de la colección de hongos de Rolf Singer. Publicación ocasional de Museo Nacional de Historia Natural No. 40. Ediciones Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, Santiago.
COMITÉ CLASIFICACIÓN DE ESPECIES SILVESTRES, 11o Proceso de Clasificación de especies, Ministerio de Medioambiente, Gobierno de Chile.
DONOSO C (1990) Ecología Forestal, El Bosque y su Medio Ambiente. Editorial Universitaria, ISBN 956-110167-9.
FURCI G (2013) Hongos de Chile, Andros Impresores, ISBN 978-956-9284-00-7.
GARRIDO N (1985) Index Agaricalium Chilensium. Bibliotheca Mycologica 99, J. Cramer, Vaduz, ISBN 37682-1435-10.
GARRIDO N (1988) Agaricales s.l. und ihre Mykorrizen in den Nothofagus-Wäldern Mittelchiles (Agaricales s.l. y sus micorrizas en los bosques de Nothofagus en Chile central). Bibliotheca Mycologica 120, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-443-59021-7.
HORAK E (1977) New and rare boletes from Chile. Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 18(1-2): 97-109.
PALFNER G (2001) Taxonomische Studien an Ektomykorrhizen aus den Nothofagus - Wäldern Mittelsüdchiles (Estudios taxonómicos sobre ectomicorrizas de los bosques de Nothofagus del Centro Sur de Chile). Bibliotheca Mycologica 190, ISBN 3-443-59092-6.
VALENZUELA E (1993) Estudio sistemático, corológico y ecológico de los Agaricales sensu lato de los bosques autóctonos de la Región de Los Lagos en Chile. Tesis de Doctorado, Universidad Alcalá de Henares, España.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted