• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Terfezia boudieri Chatin

Search for another Species...

Scientific name
Terfezia boudieri
Common names
فقع (fuga); كمأة (hama, kama, kameh or thama); خلاسي (kholasi); الرعد نبات (nahbaat alra’ad)
ترفاس (terfas)
doliman; dombalan; touboulane
terfez (also terfesse, terfex, torfâs, torfez)
criada; papascrias
doliman; domalan; kameh
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
David Minter
David Minter
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a species living in an extreme environment. There is unregulated international trade in this species. Levels of trade are not known, but are clearly large and growing. The fungus is also threatened in some places by road and urban development and by the effects of war.

Geographic range

AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. ASIA: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen. ATLANTIC OCEAN: Spain (Islas Canarias). EUROPE: Italy (Sardinia, Sicily), Spain. Native throughout its recorded range. This fungus was one of several illustrated on postage stamps of Djibouti in 1987 (MOSS & DUNKLEY, 1988); it is possible that the fungus occurs there, but no verifiable record was found. Inconclusive evidence suggests this species may also extend into Mauritania and Western Sahara in the west (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013), and into Oman in the east [www.squ.edu.om/Portals/33/almasar/Horizonnew207.pdf, accessed 3 October 2013]. No information about altitudinal distribution has been found.

Population and Trends

Over 30 records from scientific sources (specimens, databases and bibliographic sources combined, excluding duplicates) from at least April 1888 to April 2009, with observations in February, March, April and May. Most of the evidence used in the present study derives from collections or market purchases for scientific study. There is almost no information currently available from rural collector-suppliers, or from their commercial buyers about geographical distribution and abundance, and high quality information from such sources is necessary for evaluating threats and conservation status.

Not known. Said to be rare in Spain (MORENO ET AL., 2002), infrequent in Turkey (AKYÜZ ET AL., 2012), and abundant in Israel (KAGAN-ZUR & ROTH-BEJERANO, 2008). There is no information about population levels in north Africa and most of southwest Asia, the main areas of distribution of this species.

MINTER (2013) evaluated this species globally, using IUCN Categories & Criteria, as Vulnerable.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

This fungus is associated with a wide variety of different organisms. ANIMALIA. Jaculus jaculus L., 1758, J. orientalis Erxlebel 1777; Suilla gigantea Meigen 1830. FUNGI. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., A. tenuissima (Kunze) Wiltshire; Aspergillus flavus Link, A. fumigatus Fresen., A. niger Tiegh., A. ochraceus G. Wilh., A. terreus Thom; Chaetomium bostrychodes Zopf; Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.) Link; Cochliobolus australiensis (Tsuda & Ueyama) Alcorn [as Drechslera australiensis Bugnic. ex M.B. Ellis], C. hawaiiensis Alcorn [as Drechslera hawaiiensis Bugnic. ex M.B. Ellis], C. lunatus R.R. Nelson & F.A. Haasis [as Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn]; Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl.; Melanocarpus albomyces (Cooney & R. Emers.) Arx [as Thielavia albomyces (Cooney & R. Emers.) Malloch & Cain]; Mucor circinelloides Tiegh., M. hiemalis Wehmer; Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. africana (Arx) P.F. Cannon & D. Hawksw.; Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc.; Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire [as Phaeangium lefebvrei Pat.]; Rhizomucor pusillus (Lindt) Schipper [as Mucor pusillus Lindt]; Rhizopus microsporus Tiegh., R. stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill.; Sordaria sp.; Terfezia claveryi Chatin, T. metataxasi Chatin; Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, T. pinoyi (Maire) Malençon; Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) E.G. Simmons, U. tuberculatum E.G. Simmons. MONERA. Azotobacter chroococcum Beijerinck; Bacteria indet. PLANTAE. Artemisia monosperma Delile; Cistus albidus L., C. incanus L. (mycorrhizal), C. monspeliensis L., C. salviifolius L.; Fumana procumbens Gren. & Godr.; Halimum halimifolium (L.) Willk.; Helianthemum apenninum Mill., H. canariense Pers., H. eremophilum Pomel, H. hirtum var. deserti Cosson & Durieu, H. kahiricum Delile, H. ledifolium (L.) Mill., H. lippii (L.) Dum. Cours., H. monspeliense [not traced], H. salicifolium (L.) P. Mill., H. salviifolium [not traced], H. sessiliflorum (Desf.) Pers. (mycorrhizal), Helianthemum sp. (mycorrhizal); Kobresia bellardii (All.) Degel. (mycorrhizal); Plantago albicans L.; Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell.; Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr.

It forms mycorrhizas with a range of flowering plants. AL-WHAIBI (2009) provided a general review of desert plants and mycorrhizas. In Iran ascomata of T. boudieri occur about 5–10 cm below the soil surface, and field and laboratory studies have shown that it forms ectomycorrhizas with Kobresia bellardii (AMMARELLOU ET AL., 2007; AMMARELLOU & SAREMI, 2008). In Tunisia, experiments with H. sessiliflorum plants showed that individuals bearing mycorrhizas of T. boudieri grew higher, with greater leaf production and higher levels of N, P and K than those without (SLAMA ET AL., 2012). The same experiments also found enhanced growth on gypsum soils compared with sandy soils. Depending on conditions, T. boudieri may form endomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizas with Cistus incanus (ZARETSKY ET AL., 2006a; ZARETSKY ET AL., 2006b). Studies in Saudi Arabia (BOKHARY & PARVEZ, 1992a; BOKHARY & PARVEZ, 1992b; BOKHARY ET AL., 1990) and Egypt (MOHAWED ET AL., 2001) have shown that ascomata of T. boudieri are associated with many other mostly ascomycetous fungi, and with bacteria (ROUGIEUX, 1963). ROUGIEUX (1963) noted a fungal-microbial-plant interaction in the field involving T. boudieri and Azotobacter chroococcum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium, with microbial populations in general much higher near ascomata than in soil 50 cm away, and with A. chroococcum present only near ascomata. In the laboratory, T. boudieri extracts stimulated growth of the Azotobacter, but inhibited Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884. CHATIN (1891) observed that fruitbodies of T. boudieri provide food and shelter for two species of the rodent genus Jaculus (desert jerboas). SLAMA (2010) reported that in Tunisia the fly Suilla gigantea feeds on ascomata. ROTH-BEJERANO ET AL. (2004) demonstrated that mycelial growth of this fungus is affected by levels of calcium. Physical and chemical qualities of soils associated with T. boudieri have been studied in Turkey (AKYÜZ ET AL., 2012). Species of Terfezia and Tirmania need a certain minimum amount of precipitation in a given year before they produce ascomata. In Kuwait, that minimum was reported to be 180 mm well distributed from October through to March (AWAMAH & ALSHEIKH, 1979). Terfezia boudieri has been been recorded from the following habitats: amenity & protected areas (national parks); coastal (maritime sands); desert (arid scrub, dunes, semi-desert); grassland.

In desert truffles wind is an important agent of distribution: ascomata of desert truffles have large thin-walled cells in the peridium and gleba. These take up water during rare moist conditions, permitting swelling of the underground ascomata and maturation of ascospores. This results in cracks in the soil surface. When the normal drier conditions resume, the covering sandy soil is blown away by the wind and the ascomata are exposed. The thin-walled cells of the drying fruitbodies collapse into powdery fragments exposing the spores, which are then released by abrasion from blowing sand, and become wind borne (TRAPPE ET AL., 2008).


Living in the difficult environment of dry deserts, this species is adapted to survive at levels of heat and water stress which would be very unfavourable for other fungi. As a result, it already lives in conditions near the limit for sustainable life. Climate change and global warming in particular are likely to be significant long-term threats. Deserts are ecosystems on which humans tend to place little monetary value. Habitat destruction through war, irrigation, development of recreational facilities such as golf courses, disturbance of soil (for example by tourist safaris using 4-wheel drive vehicles), construction of solar energy facilities, establishment of refugee camps, and similar developments are all likely to threaten the ecosystems where this fungus occurs. MOUBASHER (2010) reported that, in Egypt, of the two main areas known for desert truffles, one on the Mediterranean coast west of Alexandria was being destroyed by construction of factories, recreational areas, retirement homes, roads, tourist villages and similar developments, while the other, in the Sinai Peninsula was seriously disturbed by military activities. ALSHEIKH (1989) reviewed the serious and damaging impact of war on desert truffle populations in Kuwait in the 1990s, and in other parts of southwest Asia and north Africa during the 20th century. In many areas where this species occurs, social upheaval and war continue. Paradoxically, the civil unrest experienced in many countries where this fungus occurs may help to protect it: the possibility of encountering landmines is likely to deter many collectors (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Pollution is also sometimes a serious threat. The firing of Kuwait oil wells as an act of war in 1991 affected populations of desert truffles over a wide area (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Nothing is known about the effect of oil pollution in soils on these fungi, but it is likely to be long-term. Ascomata of T. boudieri are known to accumulate radionucleotides (GUILLÉN GERADA, 2002), but the impact of this on the species is not known. Formerly, harvesting of this species as a wild crop was carried out by rural populations for sustainable local consumption, but in the past twenty years there has been a significant increase in commercial harvesting in connexion with international trade,and the impact of this has never been evaluated, although there are reports that harvesting by refugees as their sole form of income is having a negative impact on populations (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013). There has been considerable interest in the possibility of cultivating desert truffles. If that happens, there will be the danger that a few genotypes favourable to cultivation will be used, and these may swamp the wild populations resulting in a loss of genetic diversity. At a local level, threats listed by GRAVITO HENRIQUES (2012a) for T. arenaria (overgrazing, trampling, and encroachment of scrub etc.), are also likely to apply to the present species.

Conservation Actions

Awareness of the importance of these desert truffles is very low even at governmental level: a survey of the most recent relevant national action plans and reports for the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity [www.cbd.int/nbsap/search/default.shtml, accessed 4 October 2013] by Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates (all countries from which species of Terfezia have been recorded) showed that only Morocco and Saudi Arabia had any conservation plans. Both of these countries recognized that there might be a problem of over-exploitation; Saudi Arabia also described this species as of high conservation priority, and expressed concern about unregulated harvesting and damage by off-road use of vehicles. There is thus a strong need to make the appropriate conservation authorities in these countries more aware of the conservation needs of this species.

Research needed

There is a significant and international on-line trade in these fungi. Ascomata of Terfezia and Tirmania not identified to species level are collectively marketed on the Internet as “desert truffles”, and commercial websites exist offering them for sale. On one site the price was €35-75 per kilogram with a minimum order of 100 kilograms and a claim by the vendor that 1000 kilograms per day could be supplied [www.alibaba.com/showroom/fresh-desert-truffles.html, accessed 29 October 2013]. The trade is secretive, with no easy access to addresses, and at most only very general information about the sources of the product. The English language websites are likely to be only a small part of the total market, and much of the trade and negotiations now seems to be conducted in Arabic through social networking sites like Facebook (G. SOLIMAN, pers.comm.). Much more information about this trade is needed.

Use and Trade


AHMED, A.A., MOHAMED, M.A. & HAMI, M.A. Libyan truffles Terfezia boudieri Chatin chemical composition and toxicity. Journal of Food Science 46: 927-929 (1981). AKYÜZ, M. Nutritive value, flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the truffle (Terfezia boudieri Chatin). Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13 (1): 143-151 (2013). AKYÜZ, M., KIRBAĞ, S. & KURŞAT, M. Ecological aspects of the arid and semi-arid truffle in Turkey: evaluation of soil characteristics, morphology, distribution, and mycorrhizal relationships. Turkish Journal of Botany 36 (4): 386-391 (2012). AKYÜZ, M., ONGANER, A.N., ERECEVIT, P. & KIRBAĞ, S. Antimicrobial activity of some edible mushrooms in the eastern and southeast Anatolia region of Turkey. Gazi University Journal of Science 23 (2): 125-130 (2010). AL-NAAMA, M.M., EWAZE, J.O. & NEMA, J.H. Acid phosphatase activity of four mycorrhizal fungi. Cryptogamic Botany 4 (1): 19-22 (1993). AL-SAADI, A.H., BENKAYAL, F.A. & AL-SAADI, M.H. Libyan truffles Terfezia boudieri Chatin: characterization of lipids and total protein electrophoretic pattern. Dirasat: Pure Sciences 32 (2): 269-277 (2005) [publ. 2010]. [text in Arabic] ALSHEIKH, A.M. Taxonomy and Mycorrhizal Ecology of the Desert Truffles in the Genus Terfezia. Oregon State University, PhD Thesis, 239 pp. (1995). AL-WHAIBI, M.H. Desert plants and mycorrhizae (a mini-review). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 3 (2): 457-466 (2009). AMMARELLOU, A. & SAREMI, H. Mycorrhiza between Kobresia bellardii (All.) Degel and Terfezia boudieri Chatin. Turkish Journal of Botany 32 (1): 17-23 (2008). AMMARELLOU, A., SAREMI, H. & TRAPPE, J. The first report of Terfezia boudieri from Iran. Rostaniha 7 (2): 157 [also Persian text 210-211] (2006). AMMARELLOU, A., SAREMI, H. & GUCIN, F. Evaluation of morphology, cytology and mycorrhizal relationships of desert truffles (Terfezia boudieri) in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10 (9): 1486-1490 (2007). ATIA, A.I. Chemical evaluation of irradiated Egyptian truffles. Egyptian Journal of Radiation Sciences and Applications 18 (1): 207-220 (2005). AVIRAM, S., ROTH-BEJERANO, N. & KAGAN-ZUR, V. Two ITS forms co-inhabiting a single genet of an isolate of Terfezia boudieri (Ascomycotina), a desert truffle. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 85 (2): 169-174 (2004). AWAMAH, M.S. & ALSHEIKH, A. Laboratory and field study of four kinds of truffle (kamah), Terfezia and Tirmania species, for cultivation. Mushroom Science 10: 507-517 (1979). AWAMEH, M.S. The response of Helianthemum salicifolium and H. ledifolium to infection by the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri. In Mushroom science. XI. Part II. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on the Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Sydney, Australia. pp. 843-853 (1981). AWAMEH, M.S. & ALSHEIKH, A. Ascospore germination of black kame (Terfezia boudieri). Mycologia 72 (1): 50-54 (1980). BOKHARY, H.A. Desert truffles ‘al-kamah’ of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. I. Occurrence, identification and distribution. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, B (Agricultural and Biological Sciences) 5 (2): 245-255 (1987). BAEZA, A. & GUILLÉN, F.J. Dose due to mushroom ingestion in Spain. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 111 (1): 97-100 (2004). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Soil mycoflora from wild desert truffle habitats in northern Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments 23 (4): 379-388 (1992a). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Soil mycoflora from truffle native areas of Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia 118 (2): 103-107 (1992b). BOKHARY, H.A., PARVEZ, S. & SHIBL, A.M. Some spoilage microflora of desert truffles ‘al-kamah’ of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Food Protection 53: 779-781 (1990). BOKHARY, H.A., SULEIMAN, A.A.A. & BASALAH, M.O. The fatty acid components of the desert truffle ‘al kamah’ of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Food Protection 52 (9): 668-669 (1989). BOKHARY, H.A., SULEIMAN, A.A.A., BASALAH, M.O. & PARVEZ, S. Chemical composition of desert truffles from Saudi Arabia. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 20 (5): 336-341 (1987). BOUZIANI, N. Contribution à l’Étude et à la Mise en Valeur du Potentiel Truffier de la Région Orientale du Maroc. PhD Thesis; Faculté des Sciences, Ouijda (2009). CALONGE, F.D. DE, DE LA TORRE, M. & ŁAWRYNOWICZ, M. Contribución al estudio de los hongos hipogeos de España. Anales del Instituto Botánico Cavanilles 34 (1): 15-31 (1977). CHATIN, A. Contribution à l’histoire naturelle de la truffe. II Terfas ou truffes d’Afrique et d’Arabie, genres Terfezia et Tirmania. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 38: 54-64 (1891). DÍEZ, J., MANJÓN, J.L. & MARTIN, F. Molecular phylogeny of the mycorrhizal desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania), host specificity and edaphic tolerance. Mycologia 94 (2): 247-259 (2002). DOĞAN, H.H. & AYDIN, S. Determination of antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of desert truffle in Turkey. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 10 (4): 52-58 (2013). DOĞAN, H.H., DUMAN, R., ÖZKALP, B. & AYDİN, S. Antimicrobial activities of some mushrooms in Turkey. Pharmaceutical Biology 51 (6): 707-711 (2013). DUNDAR, A., YESIL, O.F., ACAY, H., OKUMUS, V., OZDEMIR, S. & YILDIZ, A. Antioxidant properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of Terfezia boudieri (Chatin) from Turkey. Food Science and Technology International 18 (4): 317-328 (2012). EWAZE, J.O. & AL‐NAAMA, M.M. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of Terfezia spp. and Tirmania spp. New Phytologist 112 (3): 419-422 (1989). FERDMAN, Y., SITRIT, Y., LI, Y.-F., ROTH-BEJERANO, N. & KAGAN-ZUR, V. Cryptic species in the Terfezia boudieri complex. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 95 (4): 351-362 (2009). GRAVITO HENRIQUES, J.L. Avaliação da Produção de Criadilhas (Terfezia spp.) na Área do Campo Albicastrense (Monte Fidalgo - Castelo Branco). Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território Direcção Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Centro Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pescas Divisão de Produção Agricola e Pescas, Fundão 42 pp. (2012a). [www.drapc.min-agricultura.pt/base/documentos/producao_criadilhas_gravito_2012.pdf, accessed 30 September 2013] GÜCIN, F. & DÜLGER, B. The researches on the keme truffle - Terfezia boudieri Chatin that is edible and showing antimicrobial activities. Ekoloji 23: 27-33 (1997). GUILLÉN GERADA, Estudio de la Transferencia de la Contaminación Radiactiva a los Hongos. PhD Thesis, Universidad de Extremadura, 278 pp. HAMZA, A., ZOUARI, N., ZOUARI, S., JDIR, H., ZAIDI, S., GTARI, M. & NEFFATI, M. Nutraceutical potential, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Terfezia boudieri, a wild edible desert truffle from Tunisia arid zone. Arabian Journal of Chemistry doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.06.015 (2013). HAWKER, L.E. British hypogeous fungi. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 237: 429-546, 29 figs (1954). IBRAHIM, N.A. & SAEED, A.A. Protein content and amino acid analysis of the desert truffles. Annals of Agricultural Science Moshtohor 32 (3): 1569-1573 (1994). KAGAN-ZUR, V. & ROTH-BEJERANO, N. Studying the brown desert truffles of Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 56 (4): 309-314 (2008). KAGAN-ZUR, V., ROTH-BEJERANO, N., FERDMAN, Y. & SITRIT, Y. Cryptic species in the Terfezia boudieri complex. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 19: 217-219 (2010). KHABAR, L. Études Pluridisciplinaires des Truffes du Maroc et Perspectives pour l’Amélioration de Production des “Terfess” de la Forêt de la Mamora. PhD Thesis, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat (2002). KHABAR, L., NAJIM, L., JANEX-FAVRE, M.C. & PARGUEY-LEDUC, A.P. Contribution to the study of the mycological flora of Morocco. The Moroccan truffles (Discomycetes). Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 117 (3): 213-229 (2001). KOVÁCS, G.M., BALÁZS, T.K., CALONGE, F.D. DE & MARTÍN, M.P. The diversity of Terfezia desert truffles: new species and a highly variable species complex with intrasporocarpic nrDNA ITS heterogeneity. Mycologia 103 (4): 841-853 (2011). KREISEL, H. & AL‐FATIMI, M. Basidiomycetes and larger ascomycetes from Yemen. Feddes Repertorium 115 (7‐8): 547-561 (2004). LÆSSØE, T. & HANSEN, K. Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales? Mycological Research 111 (9): 1075-1099 (2007). LATTIF, A. & ATIA, A.I. Nutritive value of irradiated Egyptian truffles. Egyptian Journal of Radiation Sciences and Applications 18 (1): 193-206 (2005). MINTER, D.W. Terfezia boudieri. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1977 (2013). MOAWAD, H., ALI, M.I.A., EL-SAIDI, M.T. & ABU-SHANAB, R.A.I. Survey of edible hypogeous ascomycotina of Egypt. African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology 5 (1): 1-12 (1997). MOHAWED, S.M., BADRAN, R.A.M. & EL-KHOLY, H. Incidence of fungal species naturally occurring in truffle resources. Egyptian Journal of Microbiology 36 (1): 1-17 (2001). MORENO, G., DÍEZ, J. & MANJÓN, J.L. Terfezia boudieri, first records from Europe of a rare vernal hypogeous mycorrhizal fungus. Persoonia 17 (4): 637-641 (2002). MORGAN, A. Use of Extracts of Pezizaceae in the Prevention and/or Treatment of Senile Cataracts. U.S. Patent Application 13/205,693, filed August 9, 2011 (2011). MORTE, A., HONRUBIA, M. & GUTIÉRREZ, A. Biotechnology and cultivation of desert truffles. In A. VARMA [ed.] Mycorrhiza: State of the Art Genetics and Molecular Biology, Eco-function, Biotechnology, Eco-physiology, Structure and Systematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, pp. 467-483 (2008). MOSS, M.O. & DUNKLEY, I.P. Recent issues of postage stamps depicting fungi. Mycologist 2 (3): 116-121 (1988). MOUBASHER, A.H. Endangered desert truffles in Egypt and neighbouring Arab countries, with further notes on their distribution. Mycologia Balcanica 7 (1): 59-64 (2010). PACIONI, G., FRIZZI, G., MIRANDA, M. & EL-KHOLY, H.K. Allozyme characterization of some terfeziaceous fungi (Pezizales, Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 61: 427-432 (1997). PATEL, S. Food, health and agricultural importance of truffles: A review of current scientific literature. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 6 (1): 15-27 (2012). PEGLER, D.N. Useful Fungi of the World: the ‘Poor man’s truffles of Arabia’ and ‘Manna of the Israelites’. Mycologist 16 (1): 8-9 (2002). ROUGIEUX, R. Actions antibiotiques et stimulantes de la truffe du desert (Terfezia boudieri Chatin). Annales de l’Institute Pasteur 105: 315-318 (1963). ROTH-BEJERANO, N., LI, Y.-F. & KAGAN-ZUR, V. Homokaryotic and heterokaryotic hyphae in Terfezia. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 85 (2): 165–168 (2004). ROTH-BEJERANO, N., MENDLINGER, S. & KAGAN-ZUR, V. Effect of calcium on growth of submerged Terfezia boudieri mycelium. Mycoscience 45 (1): 30-34 (2004). SBISSI, I., GHODHBANE-GTARI, F., NEFFATI, M., OUZARI, H., BOUDABOUS, A. & GTARI, M. Diversity of the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin in southern Tunisia. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 57 (7): 599-605 (2011). SHAVIT, E. Truffles roasting in the evening fires - pages from the history of desert truffles. Fungi 1 (3): 18-23 (2008). [http://fungimag.com/Truffle-Issue-08-articles/6_Medicinal.pdf] SLAMA, A. Étude des Truffes de la Tunisie Méridionale et Optimisation des Techniques de leur Production. PhD Thesis; Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis el Manar. 145 pp. (2010). SLAMA, A., FORTAS, Z., BOUDABOUS, A. & NEFFATI, M. Cultivation of an edible desert truffle (Terfezia boudieri Chatin). African Journal of Microbiology Research 4 (22): 2350-2356 (2010a). SLAMA, A., FORTAS, Z., NEFFATI, M., KHABAR, L. & BOUDABOUS, A. Taxonomic study of some truffles (Terfeziaceae) from southern Tunisia. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 122 (2-3): 187-195 (2006). SLAMA, A., GORAI, M., FORTAS, Z., BOUDABOUS, A. & NEFFATI, M. Growth, root colonization and nutrient status of Helianthemum sessiliflorum Desf. inoculated with a desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 19 (1): 25-29 (2012). SLAMA, A. & NEFATTI, M. Les truffes de la Tunisie méridionale: étude écologique et mycologique. Revue des Régions Arides 15: 3-51 (2004). SLAMA, A., NEFFATI, M. & BOUDABOUS, A. Biochemical composition of desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin. Acta Horticulturae 853: 285-290 (2010b). TRAPPE, J.M., CLARIDGE, A.W., ARORA, D. & SMIT, W.A. Desert truffles of the Kalahari: ecology, ethnomycology and taxonomy. Economic Botany 62 (3): 521-529 (2008). TURGEMAN, T., ASHER, J.B., ROTH-BEJERANO, N., KAGAN-ZUR, V., KAPULNIK, Y. & SITRIT, Y. Mycorrhizal association between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum alters plant physiology and fitness to arid conditions. Mycorrhiza 21 (7): 623-630 (2011). TÜRKOĞLU, A. & YAĞIZ, D. Contributions to the macrofungal diversity of Uşak Province. Turkish Journal of Botany 36: 580-589 (2012). VELASCO, J.M., MARTÍN, A. & GONZÁLEZ, A. Los nombres comunes y vernáculos castellanos de las setas: micoverna - I. Primera recopilación realizada a partir de literatura micológica e informantes. Boletín. Micológico FAMCAL 6: 155-216 (2011). VENTURELLA, G., ALTOBELLI, E., BERNICCHIA, A., DI PIAZZA, S., DONNINI, D., GARGANO, M.L., GORGÓN, S.P., GRANITO, V.M., LANTIERIA, A., LUNGHINI, D., MONTEMARTINI, A., PADOVAN, F., PAVARINO, M., PECORARO, L., PERINI, C., RANA, G., RIPA, C., SALERNI, E., SAVINO, E., TOMEI, P.E., VIZZINI, A., ZAMBONELLI, A. & ZOTTI, M. Fungal biodiversity and in situ conservation in Italy. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology 145 (4), 950-957 (2011). VENTURELLA, G., SAITTA, A., SARASINI, M., MONTECCHI, A. & GORI, L. Contribution to the knowledge of hypogeous fungi from Sicily (S-Italy). Flora Mediterranea 14: 275-284 (2004). VOLPATO, G., ROSSI, D. & DENTONI, D. A reward for patience and suffering: ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara. Economic Botany 20: 1-14 (2013). ZARETSKY, M., SITRIT, Y., MILLS, D., ROTH-BEJERANO, N. & KAGAN-ZUR, V. Differential expression of fungal genes at pre-infection and mycorrhiza establishment between Terfezia boudieri isolates and Cistus incanus hairy root clones. New Phytologist 171: 837-845 (2006a). ZARETSKY, M., KAGAN-ZUR, V., MILLS, D. & ROTH-BEJERANO, N. Analysis of mycorrhizal associations formed by Cistus incanus transformed root clones with Terfezia boudieri isolates. Plant Cell Reports 25 (1): 62-70 (2006b).

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted