• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • NTPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Marasmius limosus Quél.

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Scientific name
Marasmius limosus
Author
Quél.
Common names
Dūksnāja vītene
Schilf-Rädchen-Schwindling
Twardzioszek trzcinowy
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Marasmiaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c+3c+4c
Proposed by
Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber
Assessors
Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Inita Daniele, Izabela L. Kalucka, Nicolas Schwab

Assessment Notes

Justification

Marasmius limosus is a characteristic and rare Eurasian fungal species (ca. 500 ocurrences in GBIF). It is confined to the specific types of wetlands and at least localized, usually having high plant diversity. Despite the occurrence of a large number of wetlands there are only small number suitable for the successful existence of Marasmius limosus. Even insignificant changes of hydrological regime in and around fens can lead to the reduction of this species. It is recorded from at least 19 countries, Red-listed in several countries, e.g. Austria. It is threatened by all kinds of actions leading to changes of hydrological regime and eutrophication. Based on the estimated number of localities (500 known, tenfold to 5000), the species is assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. The habitat loss and population decline is assumed to be 10-30% in 50 years (past, present and future)  (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. Fruitbodies of M. limosus are tiny and may have been overlooked and presence underestimated. Alltogether,  the species meets the threshold for NT (A2c+3c+4c).


Taxonomic notes

Here we only consider the European records of Marasmius limosus because in line with the monography of Antonin & Noordeloos we assume that the geographically distant species records from America may indeed belong to a different taxon.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Marasmius limosus is a characteristic and rare Eurasian fungal species (ca. 500 ocurrences in GBIF). It is confined to the specific types of wetlands and at least localized, usually having high plant diversity. Despite the occurrence of a large number of wetlands there are only small number suitable for the successful existence of Marasmius limosus. Even insignificant changes of hydrological regime in and around fens can lead to extinction of this species. It is recorded from at least 14 countries, Red-listed in several countries, e.g. Austria. It is threatened by all kinds of actions leading to changes of hydrological regime and eutrophication. Based on the estimated number of localities (500 known, doubled to 1000), the species is assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. The habitat loss and population decline is assumed to be 30-50% in 50 years
(past, present and future) (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17
years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could
be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years
The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).


Geographic range

The species is distributed in the Holarktis in the boreal and temperate zone in Eurasia, namely Siberia (Russian Federation, Ukraine),  France, Benelux, Great Britain, Central Europe (Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia), Estland and North Europe (Fennoscandia, north to Lappland).


Population and Trends

According to GBIF (2021) there are totally about 500 occurrences. It is confined to the specific types of wetlands and at least localized, usually having high plant diversity. Despite the occurrence of a large number of wetlands there are only small number suitable for the successful existence of Marasmius limosus. Even insignificant changes of hydrological regime in and around fens can lead to extinction of this species. It is recorded from at least 19 countries, Red-listed in several countries, e.g. Austria. It is threatened by all kinds of actions leading to changes of hydrological regime and eutrophication. Based on the estimated number of localities (500 known, tenfold to 5000), the species is assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. The habitat loss and population decline is assumed to be 10-30% in 50 years (past, present and future) (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Marasmius limosus inhabits sedge swamps and reed beds (Phragmites), sedge meadows,  swamps, fens, as well as other wet places in e.g. beech forest. The fruiting bodies grow on stalks and leaves of monocotyledons (Carex, Phragmites, Deschampsia). According to Antonin and Noordeloos (2010) Marasmius limosus has very tiny fruiting bodies occurring on detritus of Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Typhaceae in wet sites (alcaline fens, wetlands, springs, marhses, marshy forests). Known substrates are Baldingera arundinacea, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Carex spp., Molinia coerulea, Phragmites australis and Scirpus sylvestris. It is a typical fungus for the plant association Caricetum acutae and Calamagrostidetum arundinaceae in Ukraine. It always grows in the lowest vegetation layer under moist conditions. Marasmius limosus is a rare species but it may also have been overlooked.

Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]

Threats

Wetland sites are threatened by all kinds of actions leading to changes of hydrological regime in and around mires such as peat and moss extraction, drainage ditch digging, removal of reed belts, extensive forestry plantations, eutrophication of groundwater, agricultural toxic discharges and the intensive cattle grazing nearby the habitats, etc. Marasmius limosus grows in alkaline fens which is a Natura 2000 habitat. Alkaline fens have been selectively drained in the past and have become very rare in most of EU countries and have a high conservation priority (Šefferová Stanová et al. 2008). These ecosystems are very sensitive to changes in hydrology and hydrochemistry in the wider area. For example, in Estonia the main trends in the distribution of communities of Caricetum davallianae over the last 35-40 years were evaluated and they were found to have decreased by more than 50 % (Šefferová Stanová et al. 2008). In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 95-98 % of species-rich fens existing in 1940 have been lost. Similar losses have been reported in France and the Netherlands (Šefferová Stanová et al. 2008). Drainage schemes were particularly successful in the lowlands, where the majority of fens have been drained and transformed into agricultural land with limited potential for restoration. In a recent nation-wide inventory in Sweden, disturbed hydrology was reported on two thirds of the almost 1,600 alkaline fen sites with high nature conservation values identified, although for some of the sites the disturbance was marginal (Šefferová Stanová et al. 2008). It is concluded that majority of fens have been damaged and often changed into low productive meadows that cannot be maintained without management.

Habitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Conservation management should focus on maintaining the appropriate site hydrology of sites with know occurrences of Marasmius limosus. Fen management to manipulate structural diversity should avoid the destruction of good fruiting populations. The maintenance of appropriate hydrological regime, prevention of actions leading to drying, eutrophication and changing of water composition.

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

Monitoring of this species and its habitats is desirable. Clarification of the taxonomical status of the few North American recores would be helpful.

TaxonomyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

No use or trade is known for this tiny species.


Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted