Extraeuropean findings are known from the Russian Far East and North America, however these encounters need confirmation for conspecificity by molecular techniques. Boletus reichertii described from Israel seems very close to Boletus dupainii and needs further study.
Easy to recognize with a blood-red, as lacquered looking cap and strongly colour-changing flesh from yellow pale to blue, but has high fluctuation in production of fruitbodies and/or seems rare; is mycorrhizal with frondose trees in warm, calcareous woods (Castanea, Fagus, Quercus), preferring more open habitats; threats are changing of habitat by fire, clearcutting, coniferous plantation. Redlisted in various European countries and just proposed for appendix of endangered species of Bern Conventions.
Because of insufficient data on taxonomy and ecology of non-European records, it is evaluated at European level.
Preliminary global red-list assessment: VU (A2c+3c), population reduction probably higher than 30% in the past 50 years because of decline of habitat quality, caused by replanting native oak forests by conifers (Pinus nigra etc.) and spreading of invasive Robinia pseudacacia. Loss of habitat will probably continue and may not be reversible in next 50 years. Evaluation period is 50 years (3 generations) as recommended by Dahlberg & Mueller (2011). European population probably exceeds 20 000 mature individuals. Cause of decline: replanting of native oak and other deciduous forests by conifers (Pinus nigra a.o.) and spreading of invasive Robinia pseudacacia, because of clear cutting and inappropriate forest management.
Native and probably restricted to Europe, present principally in central-southern countries.
Over the last decade or so, North American collections have been identified in North Carolina (Bessette, Roody 2007) and Iowa, and in Central America, in Belize (Kuo 2013) where it is treated as rare species. Whether or not the New World version of Boletus dupainii is actually the same phylogenetic species as the original European species remains to be seen; DNA testing would be required.
B. dupainii is known from xerothermous broadleaved forest of South and Central Europe, northernmost border in Germany and Slovakia. In all countries of its occurrence it is considered rare and threatened by the loss of habitat, which probably exceeded 30 % in whole area and is still declining. This process is in many cases irreversible in next 50 years, as original habitat has been replaced by non native or invasive species.
Redlisted in six countries.
Population Trend: Deteriorating
Mycorrhizal with frondose trees in warm, xerothermophilous woods (Castanea, Fagus, Quercus, Carpinus), sometimes preferring more open areas. Often accompanied by other rare Boletales species (B. fechtneri, B. lupinus, B. rgodoxanthus). Due to global warming effect probably slowly spreading northwards, finding suitable habitats in oak and beech forests of Central Europe.
1. Habitat Loss/Degradation 1.2. Land management of non-agricultural areas 1.2.1 Abandonment 1.2.2. Change of management regime 1.2.3. Other 1.3. Extraction 1.3.3. Wood 220.127.116.11. Clear-cutting. 1.7. Fires
10. Human disturbance 10.5. Fire
The species is redlisted or protected by law in most of the countries of its occurrence. Some of the sites are protected as nature reserves. For the future of the species it is necessary to maintain and protect sites of its occurrence with natural habitats of old grown broad-leaved forests.
Specimens from Russian Far east and North America need molecular evaluation to confirm whether they belong to the same same species as European B. dupainii.
More detailed research on real decline of broad-leaved forests in Southern and Central Europe is needed as well as monitoring of recent known populations of the species.
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