R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.
Entoloma bloxamii is a species mainly in calcareous semi-natural grasslands, and to a lesser degree (probably <30% of the population) in rich/calcareous forests (like rich broadleaved forests and calcareous pine forests), up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining, forestry and pollution. In grassland habitats we assume a habitat loss and population decline of 30-50% over the past 50 years, probably near 50%. In forests the habitat loss and population decline could be estimated to 15-30% over the same period. Over the distribution range we assume an average habitat loss and population decline of more than 30% over the last 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality of grasslands has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher because of this, strengthening the assumption of 30-50% population decline. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 800 occurrences from Europe, including duplicates, but due to lacking data in GBIF there could be roughly 1000 known localities. The species is assumed to have a population of more than 20000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe) the population decline is assumed to be on the average 30-50% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).
Entoloma bloxamii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. has for a long time been treated as one species (e.g. Noordeloos 1992, most distribution maps and red lists). Recently, however, as shown by Morgado et al. (2013), it comprises two species, E. bloxamii s.str. and E. madidum (Fr.) Gillet. See also Ainsworth et al. (2018) for more information on this group. Based on DNA sequencing, we know that Norway has mainly E. madidum (E. bloxamii s.str. not found), but similar data are lacking for most countries. Because we lack separate information on these two species in most countries, they have to be treated temporarily as one, until more information comes available. In N America, S America and Asia there are other similar species.
Big Blue Pinkgill is mainly confined to poor, unfertilized meadows on calcareous soils, but can also occur in rich/calcareous forests. An eye-catching, well-known and well sought after species. The fungus is considered to sharply decline throughout Europe, due to ceasing of traditional use of semi-natural grassland with subsequent overgrowth, fertilization of grass land and atmospheric deposition, and decline in calcareous forest habitats. Red-listed in many European countries.
Entoloma bloxamii s. lat. is known from most European countries, from the lowlands up to subalpine areas, but mostly rare to very rare. Scandinavia, UK and Germay have the largest known populations. Eastwords the distribution limit is uncertain because lack of data; in Russia only in the NW (Novgorod region).
National databases and GBIF (2019) indicate rougly 1000 occurrences from Europe. Seminatural grasslands are strongly declining. Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe (i.e. loss in seminatural grasslands, based on available information). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2006), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. In grassland habitats we therefore assume a habitat loss of 30-50% over the past 50 years, probably near 50%. The habitat quality of seminatural grasslands is also declining, strengthening the assumption of a high population decline. More than 75% of the grasslands habitats are in an unfavourable conservation status (http://ec.europa. eu/environment/nature/knowledge/ rep_habitats/index_en.htm#csa). In forests the habitat loss and population decline could be estimated to 15-30% over the same period. Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of >30% over the last 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Entoloma bloxamii s. lat. grows in calcareous, mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands and to a lesser degree (probably <30% of the population) in rich/calcareous forests (like rich broadleaved forests and calcareous pine forests). In Norway, the habitat selection has been quantified: N=115; 67,0% in seminatural grasslands, and 27,0% in rich forests (Jordal et al. 2016), and similar patterns are found in other European countries. For instance, it is not a strictly meadow species in the Iberian Peninsula where it occurs in Quercus ilex forests on calcareous ground and also in Quercus suber forests on acidic ground. In the Iberian Peninsula it is in clear decline in meadows, but still relatively common in some forest areas (Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren). It is found from the sea up to subalpine areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown, but all «CHEG-fungi» (see above) could have some kind of biotrophy or mycorrhiza (cf. Griffith 2004). The fruit bodies are short-lived (weeks), but the mycel is suspected to be longlived; >
Habitat destruction and abandoning are the main threats to seminatural grasslands. The most important process is probably withgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and plowing. Also some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. The latter factors can influence localities in forests, where also modern forestry can be a threat. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population and trends) are among types redlisted as VU, EN or CR in the EU red list of habitats (Jansen et al. 2016).
The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive areas of agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today. Mining and development projects should be avoided. There is a conservation action plan for this species in Sweden (Jordal 2011).
Further ecological research is needed to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma’s. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.
The species is not known to be used.
Ainsworth, AM, Douglas, B, Suz, LM, 2018. Big Blue Pinkgills formerly known as Entoloma bloxamii in Britain: E. bloxamii s. str., E. madidum, E. ochreoprunuloides forma hyacinthinum and E. atromadidum sp. nov. Field Mycology 19: 5-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fldmyc.2018.01.004
Artdatabanken Sweden 2019. Artfakta Entoloma bloxamii. http://artfakta.artdatabanken.se/taxon/603.
Artsdatabanken Norway 2019. https://www.artsdatabanken.no/Rodliste
Atlas grzybów Polski 2019. Mushrooms and Fungi of Poland: Entoloma bloxamii. https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Entoloma_bloxamii.htm
Dahlberg A & Croneborg H. 2003. 33 threatened fungi in Europe. Complementary and revised information on candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention T-PVS (2001) 34 rev 2.
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2006. FAO Statistical Yearbook. – FAOSTAT.
Foreningen til svampekundskabens fremme 2019. Danmarks svampeatlas. https://svampe.databasen.org/
GBIF 2019. Entoloma bloxamii. https://www.gbif.org/species/2539763; Entoloma madidum. https://www.gbif.org/species/8899985
German Mycological Society 2019. Pilzen Deutschlands: Entoloma bloxamii. http://www.pilze-deutschland.de/organismen/entoloma-bloxamii-berk-broome-sacc-1887-1
Gozdarski Institut Slovenije 2019. Varstvo gozdov Slovenije: Entoloma bloxamii. https://www.zdravgozd.si/bi_karta_sre.aspx?idorg=b779d2d7-bb30-4b82-96bb-e102af737f0a
Grifﬁth, G. W., Gamarra, J. P., Holden, E. M., Mitchel, D., Graham, A., Evans, D. A., et al. (2013) The international conservation importance of welsh ’waxcap’ grasslands. Mycosphere 4: 969–984. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MC4_5_No10.pdf
Janssen, JAM, J.S. Rodwell, M. García Criado, S. Gubbay, T. Haynes, A. Nieto, N. Sanders, F. Lan-ducci, J. Loidi, A. Ssymank, T. Tahvanainen, M. Valderrabano, A. Acosta, M. Aronsson, G. Arts, F. Attorre, E. Bergmeier, R.-J. Bijlsma, F. Bioret, C. Biţă-Nicolae, I. Biurrun, M. Calix, J. Capelo, A. Čar-ni, M. Chytrý, J. Dengler, P. Dimopoulos, F. Essl, H. Gardfjell, D. Gigante, G. Giusso del Galdo, M. Hájek, F. Jansen, J. Jansen, J. Kapfer, A. Mickolajczak, J.A. Molina, Z. Molnár, D. Paternoster, A. Piernik, B. Poulin, B. Renaux, J.H.J. Schaminée, K. Šumberová, H. Toivonen, T. Tonteri, I. Tsiripidis, R. Tzonev and M. Valachovič, (2016). European Red List of habitats. Part 2, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. European Union, Luxembourg. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/knowledge/pdf/terrestrial_EU_red_list_report.pdf
Jordal JB, 2011. Åtgärdsprogram för svampar i ängs- och betesmarker 2011-2015. Naturvårdsverket rapport 6423. Stockholm. 78 pp. [Action plan for the conservation of grassland fungi 2011-2015]
Jordal, J.B., Evju, M., Gaarder, G., 2016. Habitat specificity of selected grassland fungi in Norway. Agarica 37: 5-32. http://www.jbjordal.no/publikasjoner/Habitat_specificity_Jordal_et_al2016.pdf
Lodge D.J., Padamsee M., Matheny P.B., Aime M.C., Cantrell S.A., Boertmann D., Kovalenko A., Vizzini A., Dentinger B.T.M., Kirk P.M., Ainsworth A.M., Moncalvo J.-M., Vilgalys R., Larsson E., Lücking R., Griffith G.W., Smith M.E., Norvell L.L., Desjardin D.E., Redhead S.A., Ovrebo C.L., Lickey E.B., Ercole E., Hughes K.W., Courtecuisse R., Young, A., Binder M., Minnis A.M., Lindner D.L., Ortiz-Santana B., Haight J., Læssøe T., Baroni T.J., Geml J., Hattori T. (2014). Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales). Fungal Diversity 64:1-99. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258508783_Molecular_phylogeny_morphology_pigment_chemistry_and_ecology_in_Hygrophoraceae_Agaricales
Morgado, L.N., Noordeloos, M.E., Lamoreux, Y. & Geml, J. 2013. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses reveal species limits, phylogeographic patterns, and evolutionary histories of key morphological traits in Entoloma (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Persoonia 31: 159-178.
Noordeloos ME 1992. Entoloma s.l. Fungi Europaei, vol. 5. Giovanna Biella, Saronno, Italy.
Österreichische Mykologische Gesellschaft 2019. Datenbank der Pilze Österreichs. http://austria.mykodata.net/Taxa_0.aspx
NBN Atlas 2019. Entoloma bloxamii. https://species.nbnatlas.org/species/NHMSYS0001481464
Nederlandse Mykologische Vereniging 2019. Verspreidingsatlas Paddenstoelen: Entoloma bloxamii. https://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl/0040630
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 2019. Swiss fungi. Distribution atlas. https://swissfungi.wsl.ch/en/distribution-data/distribution-atlas.html
Wojewoda W., Ławrynowicz M. 2006. Red list of the macrofungi in Poland. (In:) Z. Mirek, K. Zarzycki, W. Wojewoda, Z. Szeląg (Eds). Red list of plants and fungi in Poland. W. Szafer Inst. Bot. Polish Acad. Sci., Krakow.