Hygrophorus calophyllus is very easily recognizable, robust, H. camarophyllus-like but with sammon-red coloured gills. The species grows in old calcareous conifer forests (dry-mesic eutrophic herb-rich forests).
Hygrophorus calophyllus is very easily recognizable, robust, H. camarophyllus-like but with sammon-red coloured gills. In Europe, the species is a indicator species of old, calcareous conifer forests on calcareous soils with a high conservation value, including a rich fungal biodiversity (eg. Bjørndalen 2003, von Bonsdorff et al. 2014, Kytövuori et al. 2005, Nitare 2011, ).
Hygrophorus calophyllus has circumboreal distribution, but the but the numbers of localities are very low with ca. 50 known localities in Europe (eg. Sweden 10-20; Norway 15-20; Russia 5, Croatia 1). USA with 35 (Siegel, N. 2019). The species has been evaluated as threatened in Norway (EN), Sweden (EN) and Croatia (CR). It is reported as regionally extinct (RE) from Finland (von Bonsdorff et al. 2019) as last collected in 1889. The number of localities have clearly declined within many decades and the declination is expected to continue due to the declination of habitat area and quality (eg. Kouki et al. 2018) which is due to: forestry management eg. old trees logged from large areas (affects to reproduction), changes in forest composition, land use and climate change (eg. Kellomäki et al. 2005).
Evaluation period used is 50 years (= three generations, see Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). The European populations (to approx. 100 sites), that is approx. 2000 individuals and it is still decreasing. Hygrophorus calophyllus is assessed Endangered (EN) under criterion A2c+3c+4c, population reduction of over 50% in 50 years based on decline of habitat quantity and quality and also under C1 (small population size and estimated continuing decline with under 2500 mature individuals).
Hygrophorus calophyllus P. Karst.
P. Karsten 1876: Bidrag, till Kännedom om Finlands Natur och Folk. Mycologia Fennica 25: 375.
Hygrophorus calophyllus is very easily recognizable, robust, H. camarophyllus-like but with sammon-red coloured gills. In Europe, the species is a indicator species of old, calcareous conifer forests on calcareous soils with a high conservation value, including a rich fungal biodiversity. The species is very rare and is included on national redlists of The Nordic Countries (Norway & Sweden EN, Finland RE) where the main European population is. The number of known localities has decreased over many decades. The habitat type in the Northern Europe is naturally very small in area, fragmented and with reduced quality.
Hygrophorus calophyllus has a circumboreal distribution. It is very rare and have a very fragmented occupancy. The core population in Europe is located in Sweden and Norway. Reported occurences in Italy and Japan have not been confirmed.
Country of occurrence:
Native: Austria; Croatia; France; Germany; Italy (?); Japan (?); Norway; Russian Federation; Spain; Sweden; United
Kingdom; United States. Island and UK/Northern Ireland (on plantations). Italy & Japan: These occurences have not been yet verified.
Hygrophorus calophyllus is currently known from ca. 85 localities in whole of it´s boreal range. The species has
small subpopulations and is severely fragmented.
The numbers in Europe, outside Fennoscandia are very low (approximately 20 sites), so in Europe altogether ca. 50 sites. The total number of localities, including yet unrecorded sites, may be 2 times higher (eg. due to the habitat type). Making the estimates for the entire European populations to approx. 100 sites, that is approx. 2,000 individuals and it is decreasing. Decreasing is estimated also in the USA (Siegel N.). The core population in Europe is in Sweden and Norway.
The species is very rare in the whole boreal area. Due to various negative trends: habitat area loss and loss off habitat quality and fragmentation, due to forestry management (eg. clear-cutting and logging old trees) and land use (for agricultural use, building etc.), is why this species has and has had a considerable decline during 50 years in Europe. To more extend climate change is causing threat to the old boreal forests (eg. Kellomäki).
The habitats of H. calophyllus are small in area and those are threatened in many countries in Northern Europe. The same trend has been reported from North America with similar population/habitat decline and is due e.g. climate change, continued loss of habitat, decline in old growth forest areas, and hotter, stand replacing fires are likely detrimental to this species (Siegel, N. 2017).
The species is estimated to have decreased by more than 50% in three generations (50 years, see Dahlberg and Mueller 2011) based on habitat-loss of old-growth forests on calcareous soils and continuing decline.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Population Trend: Decreasing
Hygrophorus calophyllus forms ectomycorrhiza with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway Spruce (Picea abies) in Europe. It is reported from North America as ectomycorrhizal with Pinaceae (Siegel, N. 2017).
The species grows in old conifer forests on calcareous soils (dry-mesic eutrophic herb-rich forests)¨in Europe (eg.von Bonsdorff et al. 2019, , Kytövuori et al. 2005, Larsson et al. 2010). This habitat type has a high conservation value, including a rich fungal biodiversity (eg. von Bonsdorff et al. 2014, Bjørndalen 2003, Nitare 2011). This kind a habitat type is naturally very small in area and fragmented and it has been assessed as threatened (VU-EN) in Finland (Kouki et al. 2018, von Bonsdorff et al. 2014). The habitat type has been decreasing in numbers and suffered quality decline in the other Nordic Countries as well (eg. Nitare 2011)
Old growth forests on calcareous soils is very threatened habitat (Kouki et al. 2005, Nitare 2011, von Bonsdorff et al. 2014) and quite few are left, also the quality has decreased/is decreasing (eg. nitrogen loads, cuttings of old trees etc.). Old-growth forests has been logged for timber and also for agricultural us in large clear-cut areas.
To prevent decline and fragmentation of the old-growth conifer forests on calcareous soils, as they are hot spots for other fungi as well, should be protected in the northern Europe core population area of Hygrophorus calophyllus.
We do not know for sure yet, is Hygrophorus calophyllus really the same in USA as in Europe. The degree of differentiation between N American and European populations should be clarified.
The species is not known to be used.
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