• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • LCPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Amanita caesarea (Scop.) Pers.

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Scientific name
Amanita caesarea
Author
(Scop.) Pers.
Common names
Caesar's Amanita
Amanite des Césars
Oronge
muchomurka císarka
Kaiserling
Veza e Çezarit
Благва
muchomor cesarski
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
LC OK
Proposed by
Clemence Pillard
Assessors
Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Nirmal Harsh, Izabela L. Kalucka, Tetiana Kryvomaz, Nikola Lačković, Clemence Pillard

Assessment Status Notes

Justification

Amanita caesarea is a common and widespread edible ectomycorrhizal species from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins. Although national trends are conflicting, the species has been declining for the last decades in most countries and threats have been identified. However, because it associates with various hosts and occurs in diverse habitat types it is of least concern (LC) at a global scale.


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

With a bright orange cap and its yellow stem, provided with a ring and a volva, this amanita is an unmistakable fungus. Amanita caesarea is a common and widespread edible ectomycorrhizal species from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins. Although national trends are conflicting, the species has been declining for the last decades in most countries and threats have been identified. However, because it associates with various hosts and occurs in diverse habitat types it is of least concern (LC) at a global scale.


Geographic range

The species has a typical distribution around the Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins. It is known from northern Africa (Algeria, Morroco, Tunisia), the southern part of Europe (absent from Poland, the UK, and from Scandinavia), the Caucasus region (Georgia, Turkey), Ukraine and Russian Caucasus, mostly Krasnodar Kray and Primorsky Kray (Svetasheva, personal communication).
 
Contrary to some reports, a comprehensive study by Sánchez-Ramírez et al. (2015) showed that the species does not occur in North or Central America nor in East Asia.


Population and Trends

By 2015, the number of known sites was reported to be more than 500. Population trends are somewhat conflicting: a moderate to a strong decrease has been observed for the last decades in most countries, some countries (e.g. France, Greece), no trend was reported, and for a few, although the species remains rare, a slow increase has been reported (Bulgaria and Belgium) (Fraiture & Otto 2015).

Population Trend: Uncertain


Habitat and Ecology

Amanita caesarea mainly occurs in termophilous deciduous natural or semi-natural forests dominated by Quercus. It is ectomycorrhizal with trees in the Fagaceae, typically Quercus (Q. cerris, frainetto, gussonei, petraea, pubescens, robur, suber, ilex, rotundifolia), but also Carpinus, Fagus and Castanea. Outside Fagaceae, it is reported to associate with Corylus (Spain), Tilia (Serbia), Abies borisii-regis and A. cephalonica (Greece) and Pinus sylvestris (Germany).

In Europe, the species occurs in the following Natura 2000 habitats (codes): 4030, 6310, 9110, 9130, 9150, 9160, 9170, 91F0, 91G0, 91H0, 91I0, 91L0, 91M0, 91W0, 91AA, 9230, 9240, 9260, 9270, 9280, 9330, 9340.

Temperate Forest

Threats

Threats mostly relate to forestry management (e.g. increased fertilization), and airborne nitrogen deposition. Irresponsible picking has also been reported. It is red-listed in most countries of occurrence: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France ( regional RedList), Germany, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Russia (regional RedList), Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland and Ukraine and protected by law in some (Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine).


Conservation Actions


Research needed

Harvest level trendsTrade trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

One of the most sought-after edible mushrooms in the Mediterranean. Commercially harvested.

Food - human

Bibliography

Adhikari, M. K., & Parajuli, P. (1994). The genus Amanita in Nepal. Banko Janakari, 4, 130-134.

Bessette, A., Bessette, A. R., & Fischer, D. W. (1997). Mushrooms of Northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press.

Bhatt, R. P., Tulloss, R. E., Semwal, K. C., Bhatt, V. K., Moncalvo, J. M., & Stephenson, S. L. (2003). Amanitaceae reported from India. A critically annotated checklist. Mycotaxon, 88, 249-270.

De Rigo, D., Enescu, C. M., Durrant, T. H., & Caudullo, G. Quercus cerris in Europe: Distribution, habitat, usage and threats. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A., Eds.

Flores Arzú, R., Comandini, O., & Rinaldi, A. C. (2012). A preliminary checklist of macrofungi of Guatemala, with notes on edibility and traditional knowledge. Evolution, 7(11).

Fraiture, A., & Walleyn, R. (2005). Distributiones Fungorum Belgii et Luxemburgi Fasc. 3. Scripta Botanica Belgica, 38.

Guzmán, G., & Ramírez-Guillén, F. (2001). The Amanita caesarea-complex.

Gvritishvili, M.N.; Hayova, V.P.; Krivomaz, T.I.; Minter, D.W. (version 2012). Electronic Distribution Maps of Georgian Fungi.

Lange, L. (1974). The distribution of Macromycetes in Europe. A report of a survey undertaken by the Committee for Mapping of Macromycetes in Europe. First half century.

Malençon, G., & Bertault, R. (1975). Flore des champignons superieurs du Maroc. Travaux. Serie botanique.

MAIRE, J., MOREAU, P., & ROBICH, G. (2009). Compléments à la Flore des Champignons Supérieurs du Maroc de G. Malençon et R. Bertault. Ed. CEMM. Nice.

Neville, P., & Poumarat, S. (2004). Amaniteae. Candusso.

Pantidou, M. E. (1980). MACRO-FUNGI IN FORESTS OF ABIES-CEPHALONICA IN GREECE. Nova Hedwigia, 32(4), 709-723.

Romero-Arenas, O., Huerta-Lara, M., Becerril-Herrera, M., Bautista-Calles, J., Damian-Huato, M. A., Tapia-Rojas, A., ... & Bonilla-Vázquez, L. (2009). Diversity of Wild Mushrooms in the Commonwealth of Benito Juarez, Tetela De Ocampo; Puebla, Mexico. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(2), 179-186.

Sesli, E., & Denchev, C. M. (2008). Checklists of the myxomycetes, larger ascomycetes, and larger basidiomycetes in Turkey. Mycotaxon, 106, 65.

Teng, S. C. (1996). Fungi of China (p. 586). R. P. Korf (Ed.). Ithaca: Mycotaxon.

Tulloss R.E. (2012) [Amanita caesarea]. Website on the genus Amanita. [https://www.eticomm.net/~ret/amanita/mainaman.html]

Wojewoda, W., Heinrich, Z., & Komorowska, H. (2004). Macrofungi in North Korea: collected in 1982-1986. W. Szafer Inst. of Botany.

Yang, Z. L. (1997). Die Amanita-Arten von Südwestchina.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted