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Entoloma griseocyaneum (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Scientific name
Entoloma griseocyaneum
Author
(Fr.) P. Kumm.
Common names
Felted Pinkgill
Gråblå rødblad
hallikassinine punalehik
suomurusokas
Entolome gris cyan
Flockenschuppiger Zärtling
Grijsblauwe satijnzwam
lillagrå rødspore
luskata rdečelistka
stornopping
Graublauer Rötling
Graulilastieliger Zärtling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-27
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2c+3c+4c
Assessors
Jordal, J.
Reviewers
Ainsworth, A.M. & Mešić, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/147278769/147874805

Justification

Entoloma griseocyaneum is a species of seminatural grassland in Europe and Russia, up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, and pollution (airborne nitrogen deposition). Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat and population decline of 30-50% over the past 50 years, probably near 50% (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 2300 occurrences. The species is assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe and Russia) the population decline is assumed to be on average >30% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).

Taxonomic notes

Entoloma griseocyaneum (Fr.) P. Kumm. is described from Sweden where a neotype is designated (Noordeloos 1992). The taxonomic status of GBIF occurrences in North America is doubtful and not included here; one ITS sequence labelled E. griseocyaneum from North America turns out to be a separate species (Bálint Dima pers. comm.). There is hardly any evidence of European Entoloma species occurring in North America (M. Noordeloos pers. comm.). Collections without blue colours are described as E. scabropellis (Noordeloos 1992), but sequencing shows that these are also E. griseocyaneum (Bálint Dima pers. comm.).

Geographic range

The species is with certainty mainly known from Europe, where it occurs in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas (see also GBIF 2019), especially in the northwestern part (UK and Scandinavia). The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data but there are sequenced records from the Russian far east.

Population and Trends

According to GBIF (2019) there are >2300 occurrences from Europe. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. The habitat quality of seminatural grasslands is also declining, strengthening the population decline. More than 75% of the grasslands habitats are in an unfavourable conservation status (http://ec.europa. eu/environment/nature/knowledge/ rep_habitats/index_en.htm#csa). Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of at least 30-50% over the last 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. Much of European grasslands have bad habitat quality. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma griseocyaneum grows in mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands, often (but not always) on calcareous soil. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use (see Threats). In Norway, most localities of the species are in semi-natural grasslands and very few in rich forests or rich fen margins (N=575: 90.1% semi-natural grasslands, 1.7% rich forests, and the rest mostly in related grassland types like unmanured parks and lawns; Jordal et al. 2016), and similar patterns are found in other countries. It is found from sea level up to subalpine and sometimes even alpine areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown.

Threats

Habitat destruction and abandonment are the main threats to seminatural grasslands. The most important process is probably overgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and ploughing are also threats, along with airborne nitrogen deposition. Also in some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population) are among types assessed as VU, EN or CR in the EU Red List of habitats (Janssen et al. 2016).

Conservation Actions

The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today.

Further ecological research is needed to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma species. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.

Use and Trade

This species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Jordal, J. 2019. Entoloma griseocyaneum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147278769A147874805. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T147278769A147874805.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence