• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Entoloma griseocyaneum (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Scientific name
Entoloma griseocyaneum
(Fr.) P. Kumm.
Common names
Felted Pinkgill
Gråblå rødblad
hallikassinine punalehik
Entolome gris cyan
Flockenschuppiger Zärtling
Grijsblauwe satijnzwam
lillagrå rødspore
luskata rdečelistka
Graublauer Rötling
Graulilastieliger Zärtling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
John Bjarne Jordal
John Bjarne Jordal
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.


Entoloma griseocyaneum is a species of seminatural grassland in Europe and Russia, up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution (nitrogen deposition). Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat and population decline of 30-50% over the past 50 years, probably near 50% (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could eventually be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 2300 occurrences. The species is assumed to have a population of more than 20000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe and Russia) the population decline is assumed to be on the average >30% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).

Taxonomic notes

Entoloma griseocyaneum (Fr.) P. Kumm. is described from Sweden where a neotype is designated (Noordeloos 1992). The taxonomic status of GBIF occurences in N America is doubtfuland not included here; one ITS sequence labelled E. griseocyaneum from N America turns out to be a separate species (Bálint Dima unpublished). There is hardly any proof of European Entoloma species occurring in N America (M. Noordeloos pers. comm.). Collections without blue colors are described as E. scabropellis (Noordeloos 1992), but sequencing show that these are also E. griseocyaneum (Bálint Dima unpublished).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a European species of (mostly calcareous) semi-natural grasslands, habitats which are strongly declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution. It is redlisted in many countries. Redlisted in many countries.

Geographic range

The species is with certainty only known from Europe, where it occurs in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas (se also GBIF 2019), especially in the northwestern part (UK and Scandinavia). The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data.

Population and Trends

According to GBIF (2019) there are >2300 occurrences from Europe. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. The habitat quality of seminatural grasslands is also declining, strengthening the population decline. More than 75% of the grasslands habitats are in an unfavourable conservation status (http://ec.europa. eu/environment/nature/knowledge/ rep_habitats/index_en.htm#csa). Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of at least 30-50% over the last 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. Much of European grasslands have bad habitat quality. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma griseocyaneum grows in mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands, often (but not always) on calcareous soil. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use (see Threats). In Norway, most localities of the species are in semi-natural grasslands and very few in rich forests or rich fen margins (N=575: 90,1% semi-natural grasslands, 1,7% rich forests, and the rest mostly in related grassland types like unmanured parks and lawns; Jordal et al. 2016), and similar patterns are found in other countries. It is found from sea level up to subalpine and sometimes even alpine areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown.

Temperate Grassland


Habitat destruction and abandoning are the main threats to seminatural grasslands including. The most important process is probably withgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and plowing. Also some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population and trends) are among types redlisted as VU, EN or CR in the EU red list of habitats (Jansen et al. 2016).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasShifting agricultureRoads & railroadsAcid rain

Conservation Actions

The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive areas of agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionConservation payments

Research needed

Further ecological research isneeded to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma’s. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.

Population size, distribution & trendsArea-based Management PlanPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Ana I., Piltaver A., Vrščaj D. 2019. Karta razširjenosti za Entoloma griseocyaneum. Podatkovna zbirka gliv Slovenije Boletus informaticus., Ogris N. (ur.) (08.03.2019) https://www.zdravgozd.si/bi_karta_sre.aspx?idorg=23d28b08-07bf-476a-89d3-8c1cb62ff346
Artdatabanken Sweden 2019. Artfakta Entoloma griseocyaneum. http://artfakta.artdatabanken.se/taxon/597
Artsdatabanken Norway 2019. https://www.artsdatabanken.no/Rodliste
Atlas grzybów Polski 2019. Mushrooms and Fungi of Poland: Entoloma griseocyaneum. https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Entoloma_griseocyaneum.htm
Finnish Biodiversity Information Facility 2019. Suomen lajitietokeskus. https://laji.fi/en
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2006. FAO Statistical Yearbook. – FAOSTAT.
Foreningen til svampekundskabens fremme 2019. Danmarks svampeatlas. https://svampe.databasen.org/
GBIF 2019. Entoloma griseocyaneum. https://www.gbif.org/species/2539866
German Mycological Society 2019. Pilzen Deutschlands: Entoloma griseocyaneum. http://www.pilze-deutschland.de/organismen/entoloma-griseocyaneum-fr-p-kumm-1871-1
Griffith, G. W., Gamarra, J. P., Holden, E. M., Mitchel, D., Graham, A., Evans, D. A., et al. (2013) The international conservation importance of welsh ’waxcap’ grasslands. Mycosphere 4: 969–984. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MC4_5_No10.pdf
Janssen, JAM, J.S. Rodwell, M. García Criado, S. Gubbay, T. Haynes, A. Nieto, N. Sanders, F. Lan-ducci, J. Loidi, A. Ssymank, T. Tahvanainen, M. Valderrabano, A. Acosta, M. Aronsson, G. Arts, F. Attorre, E. Bergmeier, R.-J. Bijlsma, F. Bioret, C. Biţă-Nicolae, I. Biurrun, M. Calix, J. Capelo, A. Čar-ni, M. Chytrý, J. Dengler, P. Dimopoulos, F. Essl, H. Gardfjell, D. Gigante, G. Giusso del Galdo, M. Hájek, F. Jansen, J. Jansen, J. Kapfer, A. Mickolajczak, J.A. Molina, Z. Molnár, D. Paternoster, A. Piernik, B. Poulin, B. Renaux, J.H.J. Schaminée, K. Šumberová, H. Toivonen, T. Tonteri, I. Tsiripidis, R. Tzonev and M. Valachovič, (2016). European Red List of habitats. Part 2, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. European Union, Luxembourg. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/knowledge/pdf/terrestrial_EU_red_list_report.pdf
Jordal, J.B., Evju, M., Gaarder, G., 2016. Habitat specificity of selected grassland fungi in Norway. Agarica 37: 5-32. http://www.jbjordal.no/publikasjoner/Habitat_specificity_Jordal_et_al2016.pdf
Noordeloos ME 1992. Entoloma s.l. Fungi Europaei, vol. 5. Giovanna Biella, Saronno, Italy.
Österreichische Mykologische Gesellschaft 2019. Datenbank der Pilze Österreichs. http://austria.mykodata.net/Taxa_0.aspx
NBN Atlas 2019. Entoloma griseocyaneum. https://species.nbnatlas.org/species/NHMSYS0001481560
Nederlandse Mykologische Vereniging 2019. Verspreidingsatlas Paddenstoelen: Entoloma griseocyaneum. https://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl/0040430
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 2019. Swiss fungi. Distribution atlas. https://swissfungi.wsl.ch/en/distribution-data/distribution-atlas.html

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted