R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.
Entoloma excentricum is a species of xerophytic, calcareous seminatural grassland and shallow soil on limestome in Europe, up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution (nitrogen deposition). Over the distribution range we assume a total population decline of 15-30% over the last 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists 283 occurrences, while national databases sum up to about 400. The species is assumed to have a population of less than 10000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe) the population decline is assumed to be on the average 15-30% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for NT (A2c+3c+4c)/ C-criteria?
Entoloma excentricum Bres. is normally an easily recognizable species, both macroscopically and microscopically (Noordeloos 1992, Senn-Irlet & Wöltsche 2002). The species is described from Italy but the type does not exist (Noordeloos 1992). The taxonomic status of a few GBIF occurences in N America is uncertain and not included here.There is hardly any proof of European Entoloma species occurring in N America (M. Noordeloos pers. comm.). The type of Entoloma excentricum var. porphyrocephalum Noordel. & Wölfel from Germany (Noordeloos 1982) is sequenced and shown to be a separate species which will need a new name (Bálint Dima unpublished) and this taxon is therefore not included here. It can be separated from E. excentricum by macroscopical and microscopical hallmarks (Noordeloos 1982, 1992).
This is a European species of dry and calcareous seminatural grasslands and shallow soil on limestone, habitats which are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution.
The species is with certainty only known from Europe. National databases indicate >400 occurrences in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas (se also GBIF 2019), especially in calcareous areas. The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data.
National databases indicate >400 occurrences in European countries. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. This species also occurs on limestone with shallow soils and rarely also calcareous forest, and these habitats may have a slower habitat loss. In Sweden and Austria the population is thought be too slowly declining for the red list. Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of 15-30% over the last 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Entoloma excentricum grows in dry and calcareous, mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands and limestone/chalk with shallow soil. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use (see Threats). It is found from the sea up to subalpine areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown. The fruit bodies are short-lived (weeks), but the mycel is suspected to be longlived; >50-100 years.
Habitat destruction and abandoning are the main threats to seminatural grasslands including the dry and calcareous ones. The most important process is probably withgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and plowing. Also some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. The latter factors can also influence localities on limestone with shallow soils, which can also be subject to mining. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most grasslands suitable for CHEG-fungi (see Population and trends) are among types redlisted as VU, EN or CR in the EU red list of habitats (Jansen et al. 2016).
The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive areas of agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today. Mining and development projects should be avoided.
Further ecological research is needed to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma’s. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.
The species is not known to be used.
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