Agaricus paradoxus Kalchbr.
Agaricus pelletieri Lév.
Boletus paradoxus (Kalchbr.) D.M. Hend.
Clitocybe pelletieri (Lév.) Gillet
Paxillus paradoxus (Kalchbr.) Cooke
Paxillus pelletieri (Lév.) Velen.
Phylloporus paradoxus (Kalchbr.) Cleland
Xerocomus pelletieri (Lév.) Bresinsky & Manfr. Binder
Phylloporus rhodoxanthus is a similar but distinct American species confirmed by molecular studies (Neves et all, 2012)
Phylloporus pelletieri is a rare species with easy recognisable appearence. The unique combination of Xerocomus habitus and thick anastomosing brighly yellow lamellae allows to notice and indentify this species without mistakes. It prefers predominantly old well-preserved deciduous or mixed forests formed mostly by Fagaceae species on the well-drained soil. It’s considered as rare almost everywhere in Europe, redlisted at least in 12 European countries and recommended to the Red Data Book of Russia. Population is declining because of reducing of quantity and quality of suitable habitats due to increasing human activity in organisation of entertainment venues in natural enviroment and due to other economic benefits.
Ongoing declining is estimated more then 20 % during evaluation time (50yr /3 generations). The most applicable criterion A2c+3+4, resulting status NT, but close to Vu.
Predominantly western european distribution. It’s rather widespead in Central and Southern Europe, icluding Caucasus, but there no data from Northern Scandinavia. In Russia there are only two exactly registered finds in Adygea and Karachaevo-Cherkesia Republics.
According Dahlberg, Croneborg (2003) the total quantity of possible localities in Europe 926. Redlisted in 12 European countries as Cr, En or Vu.
Updated data (21.04.14) Germany - 334 localities; Netherlands 11 (after 1990), UK - about 100; Denmark - 6 finds (2009-2014), Belgium - 31, Sweden - 11 localities, Russia - 2 localities. It’s the species with predominantly Western European distribution.
Ongoing declining can be considered about 15-30% due to loss and degradation of habitats (for example in Adygea the part of suitable habitats affected by the construction of Olympic town in 2013-2014).
The number of known localities today is about 1000, and it’s expected to be at least twice times more - 2000
Total number of functional individual can be 2000 x 2 =4000, and mature individuals 4000x10 =40000, hence it’s impossible to use C criterion.
The species suffers from the change or loss of habitats quality (especially nitrification as well as acidification) (Karash et al. 2009) ongoing declining is estimated more then 20 % during evaluation time (50yr /3 generations). The most applicable criterion A2c+3+4, resulting status NT, but close to Vu.
Population Trend: Deteriorating
Phylloporus pelletieri forms ectomycorrhiza with Fagus, Castanea, rarely with Quercus, Carpinus, Corylus, probably some conifer trees. Occurs predominantly in old-growth forests of nemoral or boreo-nemoral zones from lowland to ca.1200 m above sea-level, more often it’s found in mountain forests, on the well-drained sandy or loamy acidic soils. Usually it grows solitary, forms one or a few fruitbodies in one locality.
Destruction or damage of habitats because of clearcutting of old-growth natural broadleaved forests, loss of habitats quality (especially nitrification as well as acidification) as well as degradation of habitats due to inadequate forest management and increasing of recreation pressure,
Protection of habitats in law, especially the old-growth natural broadleaved forests; appropriate forest management and regulation of recreational pressure if it’s not possible to protect localities.
Clarifying of ecology and preferable habitats, research of individual and population size
The distribution, status and habitat requirement of the 33 fungal candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention (June 2003) http://www.artdata.slu.se/Bern_Fungi/Bern_Fungi.htm
Ladurner H, Simonini G (2003) Xerocomus s.l, vol 8. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio
Neves M.A., M. Binder, R.E. Halling, D. Hibbett,, K. Soytong. 2012. The phylogeny of selected Phylloporus species, inferred from NUC-LSU and ITS sequences, and descriptions of new species from the Old World. Fungal Diversity 55: 109-123.
Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. 1991. Pilze der Schweiz 3: 74, pl.39. Mykologia, Luzern
Engel, H. 1996. Schmier- und Filzröhrlinge s.l. in Europa: 152-154, pl. 44. H. Engel, Weidhausen
Karash et al.Rote Liste gefährdeter Grosspilze Bayerns, issued by Bayerishes Landesamt fur Umwelt, Ausburg, 2009.