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  • Under Assessment
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Amanita lepiotoides Barla

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Scientific name
Amanita lepiotoides
Common names
Húsbarna galóca
Dežnikasta mušnica
Amanite fausse-lépiote
Braunscheidiger Wulstling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
Proposed by
Dario Gisotti
Dario Gisotti
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes


Amanita lepiotoides is an ectomycorrhizal fungus associating with broadleaved trees, especially oaks, in southern Europe. It is a large, conspicous and easily recognizable fungus described in 1885. It is obviously very rare and only reported from 30 sites between 1970-2019.

Oak forests are threathened all over europe by climate change driven decline (Keča, Nenad, et al. 2016).
The number of known localities for this species is quite low, and suggests that its population could be small.
The species is projected to decline of at least 10% over three generations, due to habitat reduction and deterioration.
The total population estimate amounts to 12.000 mature individuals, close to the 10.000 threshold for VU under criterion C1.

Taxonomic notes

The complex of Amanita lepiotoides in the section Amidella also comprises the two better known Mediterranean species A. ponderosa and A. curtipes (Moreno, Gabriel, et al. 2008).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

It’s a rare Amanita species with a southern european distribution, known for a very long time, well recognizable by macromorphological features. It is mycorrhizal with broadleaved trees, especially oaks, which are threathened all over Europe by climate change driven decline (Keča, Nenad, et al. 2016).
The number of known localities for this species is quite low, and suggests that its population could be small.

Geographic range

Amanita lepiotoides is only known from southern and central Europe. Most reports are from Spain (Arrillaga & Mayoz, 2005; Jimenez, 2010), central and southern France (Burdy, 1968; Rouzeau, 1982), and Italy (Anastase & La Rocca 1997; Galli, 2000; Zecchin, 2000; Ciccarone et al. 2005). It is also recorded in Switzerland, southern Austria, Slovenia, northern Croatia (Tkalčec et al. 2008) and recently from northern and western Hungary (Lukács, 2010).

Population and Trends

The main habitat of Amanita lepiotoides, oak woods, is widespread in southern Europe. However, it is obviously a rare fungus and is only reported from about 30 sites between 1990-2019, despite having large and conspicuous sporocarps and being easily identified in the field. The fungus has been known and searched for since long. It was described in 1885. The potential total number of sites with occurrence, hence the total population size, of A leptioides is challenging to estimate due to its potentially widespread habitat. Accounting for such unrecorded sites, it is unlikely that A. leptioides occurs at more than 500-750 sites. The fruiting typically consist of 1 or 2 fruit bodies at each site. Assuming on average 2 functional individuals per site, each site is estimated to consist of 20 mature individuals (Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011), the known sites corresponds to 600 mature individuals, and the total estimated sites is about 10.000 to 15.000 mature individuals.

The main host trees of Amanita lepiotoides, Q. petraea and Q. robur, are widespread and common, but have historically gone through population decline as a result of as a result of habitat loss, timber trade and disease die back (Ducousso et al. 2003). They are globally red-list assessed as Least Concern, but have declining European populations and are predicted to be negatively impacted by climate change (Gorener et al. 2017; Barstow & Khela, 2017) . Their ranges are likely to move northwards with much of France, Italy and Spain becoming unsuitable (EU Commission 2017). Oak forests all over Europe are subject to defoliation (Fischer, Richard, et al. 2010) and episodes of dieback driven by climate change, increasing in frequency and projected to increase further (Keča, Nenad, et al. 2016).

The population of Amanita lepiotoides is projected to decline in parallel with oaks declining.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Amanita lepiotoides form ectomycorrhiza with broadleaved trees. It is mainly reported to associate with oaks, Quercus (Q. cerris (unpublished), Q.petraea (Lukács, 2010), Q. pyrenaica (Jimenez, 2010) and Q. robur (Arrillaga & Mayoz, 2005) but it is also found with beech (Fagus sylvatica, Lukács, 2010) and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa, Anastase & La Rocca, 1997). Most observations are from rather dry and termophilic forests on soils that can be either calcareous and acidic. Fruit bodies are reported from July to August. Mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi can be long-lived, as old and potentially significantly older, than their host trees.

Temperate Forest


The main large scale threat is climate change, causing changes in temperatures and precipitation patterns that are projected to negatively affect the oak habitats of A. leptiotoides, including increasing the incidence of dieback in oak forests (Keča, Nenad, et al. 2016). Locally, logging, replacing oak forest with conifer plantations for timber production and invasion by alien tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima) may be fatal (Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena, et al. 2009, Keenan & Kimmins, 1993; Radtke et al., 2013).


Intentional use: large scale (species being assessed is the target) [harvest]Named speciesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Protection of known sites.

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

It is desirable to improve the ecological knowledge of Amanita lepiotoides to better understand its habitat requirements and to identify appropriate conservation management. Such knowledge, combined with more attention paid to search for the species, e.g. by surveys, would also result in better knowledge of its occurrences, the population size and its trend.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There is no use and trade known. The edibility of Amanita lepiotoides is unknown. Some species in the same section of Amanita have norleucine toxicity, while some others are consumed (Kirchmair et al. 2001)



Barla, J.B. 1885. Liste des champignons nouvellement observés dans le département des Alpes-Maritimes. Sous-Genre I.- Amanita. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France. 1:189-194

Moreno, G., Platas, G., Peláez, F., Bernedo, M., Vargas, A. 2008 “Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that Amanita ponderosa and A. curtipes are distinct species.” Mycological Progress 7.1: 41-47.

Radtke, A., et al. “Traditional coppice forest management drives the invasion of Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia into deciduous forests.” Forest Ecology and Management 291 (2013): 308-317

Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena, et al. “Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.” Ecological applications 19.8 (2009): 2124-2141.

Fischer, Richard, et al. “The condition of forests in Europe. 2010 Executive Report.” ICP Forests and European Commission, Hamburg and Brussels, Germany, Belgium (2010).

Gorener, V., Khela, S. & Barstow, M. 2017. Quercus petraea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T62539A3116237. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62539A3116237.en. Downloaded on 25 July 2019.

Barstow, M. & Khela, S. 2017. Quercus robur. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T63532A3126467. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T63532A3126467.en. Downloaded on 25 July 2019.

Keenan, Rodney J., and J. P. Kimmins. “The ecological effects of clear-cutting.” Environmental Reviews 1.2 (1993): 121-144.

Keča, Nenad, et al. “European oak decline phenomenon in relation to climatic changes.” Folia Forestalia Polonica 58.3 (2016): 170-177.

Kirchmair, Martin, et al. “Amanita poisonings resulting in acute, reversible renal failure: new cases, new toxic Amanita mushrooms.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 27.4 (2011): 1380-1386.

Z. Tkalcec, A. Mesic, N. Matocec, I. Kusan “Red Book of Croatian Fungi.” Minstry of Culture, State Institute for Nature Protection, Republic of Croatia. Zagreb (2008)

Jimenez G. P. “Consideraciones sobre especies raras y/o durmientes: el caso de Amanita lepiotoides en la provincia de Salamanca” Bol. Micol. Lazarillo, 4: 21-22 (2010)

Arrillaga & Mayoz. “Amanita lepiotoides Barla, primera cita para el País Vasco.” Munibe 56 (2005): 21-28.

Anastase & La Rocca “A gathering of Amanita lepiotoides on the outskirts of the Ficuzza wood district in Sicily.” Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea, 12(1) 11-14

Ciccarone et al..: An annotated list of macrofungi from Gargano areas (S-Italy). Fl. Medit. 15 (2005): 621-668.

Galli, R. “Due Amanita poco frequenti: Amanita gemmata f. amici e Amanita lepiotoides.” Boll. Gr. micol. G. Bres. (n.s.) 43-2 (2000): 97-104.

Zecchin G. “Due rare amanite in Friuli: Amanita friabilis e Amanita lepiotoides.” Boll. Gr. micol. G. Bres. (n.s.) 43-2 (2000): 163-171.

Zoltán, L. “Contributions to the macrofungi of Hungary IV.” Mikológiai Közlemények, Clusiana 49(1–2) (2010): 79–119.

Guba E., Siller I., Dima B., Turcsànyi G. “A szalafòi òserdò erdòrezervàtum nagygombài.” Silva naturalis vol. III (2000): 137 .

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted