This is a species living in an extreme environment. There is unregulated international trade in this species. Levels of trade are not known, but are clearly large and growing. The fungus is also threatened in some places by road and urban development and by the effects of war.
AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. ASIA: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan. ATLANTIC OCEAN: Spain (Islas Canarias). EUROPE: Italy (mainland and Sardinia), Portugal, Spain. Native throughout its recorded range. Inconclusive evidence suggests this species may also extend into Mauritania and Western Sahara in the west (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013), and into Oman in the east [www.squ.edu.om/Portals/33/almasar/Horizonnew207.pdf, accessed 3 October 2013]. No information about altitudinal distribution has been found.
Not known. Over 130 records from scientific sources (specimens, databases and bibliographic sources combined, excluding duplicates) from at least 1892 to March 2004, with observations in January, February, March, April, May, June, November and December. Most of the evidence used in the present study derives from collections or market purchases for scientific study. There is almost no information currently available from rural collector-suppliers, or from their commercial buyers about geographical distribution and abundance, and high quality information from such sources is necessary for evaluating threats and conservation status. Rare in Morocco (MALENÇON, 1973). Widespread and abundant from north Africa to southwest Asia, except Egypt (ALSHEIKH, 1995). Common in the Qatar desert (AL-THANI, 2010).
MINTER (2013) using IUCN Categories & Criteria evaluated this species as Vulnerable.
Population Trend: Decreasing
This species is associated with many other organisms. ANIMALIA. Oryx leucoryx Pallas 1777. FUNGI. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.; Aspergillus flavus Link, A. fumigatus Fresen., A. niger Tiegh., A. terreus Thom; Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.) Link; Cochliobolus australiensis (Tsuda & Ueyama) Alcorn [as Drechslera australiensis Bugnic. ex M.B. Ellis], C. hawaiiensis Alcorn [as Drechslera hawaiiensis Bugnic. ex M.B. Ellis], C. lunatus R.R. Nelson & F.A. Haasis [as Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn]; Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl.; Mucor circinelloides Tiegh.; Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc., P. dupontii Griffon & Maubl. [as Talaromyces thermophilus Stolk], P. notatum Westling; Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire [as Phaeangium lefebvrei Pat.]; Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill., Rhizopus sp.; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) Bainier; Setosphaeria rostrata K.J. Leonard; Sordaria sp.; Terfezia boudieri Chatin; Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, T. pinoyi (Maire) Malençon; Ulocladium tuberculatum E.G. Simmons. MONERA. Bacteria indet. PLANTAE. Acacia hebeclada DC; Artemisia herba-alba Asso, A. monosperma Delile; Atractylis serratuloides (Cass.) DC.; Carex stenophyllum Wahlenb. (mycorrhizal); Cistaceae indet.; Cistus albidus L. (mycorrhizal), Cistus sp.; Fumana procumbens Gren. & Godr. (mycorrhizal); Helianthemum almeriense Pau (mycorrhizal), H. apenninum Mill. (mycorrhizal), H. eremophilum Pomel, H. kahiricum Delile (mycorrhizal), H. lavandulifolium Mill., H. ledifolium (L.) Mill. (mycorrhizal), H. lippii (L.) Dum. Cours. (mycorrhizal), H. salicifolium (L.) P. Mill. (mycorrhizal), H. viscarium Boiss. & Reut. (mycorrhizal); Pinus halepensis Mill.; Plantago albicans L.; Quercus coccifera L.; Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl.; Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr. [as Helianthemum guttatum (L.) P. Mill.] (mycorrhizal).
This species forms mycorrhizas with a range of flowering plants. AL-WHAIBI (2009) provided a general review of desert plants and mycorrhizas. General aspects of the mycorrhiza formed by T. claveryi were described by DEXHEMIER ET AL. (1985). FORTAS & CHEVALLIER (1992) showed that in Algeria this fungus forms two different types of mycorrhiza with Tuberaria guttata [as Helianthemum guttatum], depending on soil fertility: ectomycorrhizas in phosphorus rich substrata, and ectendomycorrhizas in phosphorus deficient substrata. MORTE ET AL. (1994) developed techniques for in vitro production of mycorrhizas between this fungus and Helianthemum almeriense, later refined by GUTIÉRREZ ET AL. (1996), and GUTIÉRREZ ET AL. (2003) provided a further account of some other aspects of these mycorrhizas. In vitro studies of mycelium of Terfezia claveryi show that it is well adapted to tolerate water stress (NAVARRO-RÓDENAS ET AL., 2011). The function of aquaporins in roots of H. almeriense is affected by drought conditions which simultaneously trigger changes in the type of mycorrhiza formed with T. claveryi, and it has been postulated that this is a factor in drought response regulation in the plant (NAVARRO-RÓDENAS ET AL., 2012b; NAVARRO-RÓDENAS ET AL., 2013). The type of mycorrhiza formed between this fungus and that plant is also influenced by levels of organic phosphorus (NAVARRO-RÓDENAS ET AL., 2012a). JAMALI & BANIHASHEMI (2013) have shown that it is possible to use nested PCR techniques to identify the presence of T. claveryi in roots and therefore to demonstrate mycorrhizal associations with Helianthemum species in Iran. This species prefers calcareous soils, where T. arenaria (Moris) Trappe prefers acid soils (HONRUBIA ET AL., 1992).
Studies in Saudi Arabia (BOKHARY & PARVEZ, 1992a; BOKHARY & PARVEZ, 1992b; BOKHARY ET AL., 1990), Egypt (MOHAWED ET AL., 2001) and Iran (JAMALI & BANIHASHEMI, 2012b) have shown that ascomata of T. claveryi are associated with many other mostly ascomycetous fungi, and with bacteria. These include glucophilic and halophilic species, fungi which can produce mycotoxins, and some potential plant pathogens (JAMALI & BANIHASHEMI, 2012b). Nothing seems to be known about the relationships between these species, and their ecological role. The fungus has been associated with the endangered Arabian oryx in that occurs within areas set aside to protect that species (OSTROWSKI ET AL., 1998); this has been viewed as a problem for oryx conservation because of intrusion into the reserve by local people to collect ascomata; there seems to have been no consideration of the fungus as an important component of the natural habitat of the animal which may itself need protection. Species of Terfezia and Tirmania need a certain minimum amount of precipitation in a given year before they produce ascomata. In Kuwait, that minimum was reported to be 180 mm well distributed from October through to March (AWAMAH & ALSHEIKH, 1979). This species has been recorded from the following habitats: amenity & protected areas (national parks); coastal (maritime sands); desert (arid scrub, dunes, semi-desert); grassland.
Living in the difficult environment of dry deserts, this species is adapted to survive at levels of heat and water stress which would be very unfavourable for other fungi. As a result, it already lives in conditions near the limit for sustainable life. Climate change and global warming in particular are likely to be significant long-term threats. Deserts are ecosystems on which humans tend to place little monetary value. Habitat destruction through war, irrigation, development of recreational facilities such as golf courses, disturbance of soil (for example by tourist safaris using 4-wheel drive vehicles), construction of solar energy facilities, establishment of refugee camps, and similar developments are all likely to threaten the ecosystems where this fungus occurs. MOUBASHER (2010) reported that, in Egypt, of the two main areas known for desert truffles, one on the Mediterranean coast west of Alexandria was being destroyed by construction of factories, recreational areas, retirement homes, roads, tourist villages and similar developments, while the other, in the Sinai Peninsula was seriously disturbed by military activities. ALSHEIKH (1989) reviewed the serious and damaging impact of war on desert truffle populations in Kuwait in the 1990s, and in other parts of southwest Asia and north Africa during the 20th century. In many areas where this species occurs, social upheaval and war continue. Paradoxically, the civil unrest experienced in many countries where this fungus occurs may help to protect it: the possibility of encountering landmines is likely to deter many collectors (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Pollution is also sometimes a serious threat. The firing of Kuwait oil wells as an act of war in 1991 affected populations of desert truffles over a wide area (ALSHEIKH, 1989). Nothing is known about the effect of oil pollution in soils on these fungi, but it is likely to be long-term. Formerly, harvesting of this species as a wild crop was carried out by rural populations for sustainable local consumption, but in the past twenty years there has been a significant increase in commercial harvesting in connexion with international trade,and the impact of this has never been evaluated, although there are reports that harvesting by refugees as their sole form of income is having a negative impact on populations (VOLPATO ET AL., 2013). There has been considerable interest in the possibility of cultivating desert truffles. If that happens, there will be the danger that a few genotypes favourable to cultivation will be used, and these may swamp the wild populations resulting in a loss of genetic diversity. At a local level, threats listed by GRAVITO HENRIQUES (2012a) for T. arenaria (overgrazing, trampling, and encroachment of scrub etc.), are also likely to apply to the present species.
This species is prized for its culinary qualities: a popular account with information about some ways in which it can be prepared was provided by LOIZIDES ET AL. (2012). CHATIN (1891) and CHATIN (1892) reported that, in a good season, up to 20 camel loads per day could arrive at the market in Damascus. Factors affecting possible commercial production of this species were explored in Morocco (BOUZIANI, 2009). There is a significant and international on-line trade in these fungi. Ascomata of Terfezia and Tirmania not identified to species level are collectively marketed on the Internet as “desert truffles”, and commercial websites exist offering them for sale. On one site the price was €35-75 per kilogram with a minimum order of 100 kilograms and a claim by the vendor that 1000 kilograms per day could be supplied [www.alibaba.com/showroom/fresh-desert-truffles.html, accessed 29 October 2013]. The trade is secretive, with no easy access to addresses, and at most only very general information about the sources of the product. The English language websites are likely to be only a small part of the total market, and much of the trade and negotiations now seems to be conducted in Arabic through social networking sites like Facebook (G. SOLIMAN, pers.comm.).
Awareness of the importance of these desert truffles is very low even at governmental level: a survey of the most recent relevant national action plans and reports for the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity [www.cbd.int/nbsap/search/default.shtml, accessed 4 October 2013] by Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates (all countries from which species of Terfezia have been recorded) showed that only Morocco and Saudi Arabia had any conservation plans. Both of these countries recognized that there might be a problem of over-exploitation; Saudi Arabia also described this species as of high conservation priority, and expressed concern about unregulated harvesting and damage by off-road use of vehicles. Appropriate conservation authorities in these countries need to be made more aware of the need to protect this species.
Much more information is needed about the current unregulated international trade in this species.
ABDELKRIM, E.L., TOUHAMI, A.O., ZIDANE, L., FENNANE, M. & DOUIRA, A. Inventaire des spécimens fongiques de l’Herbier National de l’Institut Scientifique de Rabat. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique Rabat 25: 1-23 (2003). ALDEBASI, Y.H., NOUH, W.G., ABDEL ATTI, N.M., SALEM-BEKHIT, M.M., QURESHI, M.A. & ALY, S.M. Comparative pathological studies on the healing effect of natural (Terfezia claveryi) and synthetic (Vigamox) antimicrobials on corneal ulcers in rabbits. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2 (6): 66-77 (2012). AL-NAAMA, M.M., EWAZE, J.O. & NEMA, J.H. Chemical constituents of Iraqi truffles. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences ‘ZANCO’ 6 (2): 51-56 (1988). AL-NAAMA, M.M., EWAZE, J.O. & NEMA, J.H. Acid phosphatase activity of four mycorrhizal fungi. Cryptogamic Botany 4 (1): 19-22 (1993). AL-RUQAIE, I.M. Effect of different preservation methods on the quality of truffles. NutraCos 1 (4): 46-50 (2002a). AL-RUQAIE, I.M. Effect of different treatment processes and preservation methods on the quality of truffles: I. Conventional methods (drying/freezing). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5 (10): 1088-1093 (2002b). AL‐RUQAIE, I.M. Effect of different treatment processes and preservation methods on the quality of truffles: I. Conventional methods (drying/freezing). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 30 (3): 335-351 (2006). AL-RUQAIE, I.M. Effect of treatment process and preservation method on shelf life of truffles: II. Non-conventional methods (Radiation). International Journal of Biological Chemistry 3 (3): 126-131 (2009). ALSHEIKH, A.M. Taxonomy and Mycorrhizal Ecology of the Desert Truffles in the Genus Terfezia. Oregon State University, PhD Thesis, 239 pp. (1995). AL-THANI, R.F. Survey of macrofungi (including truffles) in Qatar. KBM Journal of Botany 1 (2): 26-29 (2010). AL-WHAIBI, M.H. Desert plants and mycorrhizae (a mini-review). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 3 (2): 457-466 (2009). ÁLVAREZ, I.F., PARLADÉ, J., TRAPPE, J.M. & CASTELLANO, M.A. Hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi of Spain. Mycotaxon 47: 201-217 (1993). AMMARELLOU, A. Protein profile analysis of desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi Chatin). Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 5 (2): 62-64 (2007). AWAMAH, M.S. & ALSHEIKH, A. Laboratory and field study of four kinds of truffle (kamah), Terfezia and Tirmania species, for cultivation. Mushroom Science 10: 507-517 (1979). AWAMEH, M.S. & ALSHEIKH, A. Features and analysis of spore germination in the brown kamé Terfezia claveryi. Mycologia 72 (3): 494-499 (1980). BEKÇİ, H., ALTİNSOY, B., SARİKAYA, S., ONBASİLİ, D. & ÇELİK, G.Y. Antimicrobial activity of some macrofungi collected from Kastamonu province. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 11 (2): 187-190 (2011). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Desert truffles ‘al-kamah’ of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2. Additional contributions. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 6 (1): 103-112 (1988). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Soil mycoflora from wild desert truffle habitats in northern Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments 23 (4): 379-388 (1992a). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Soil mycoflora from truffle native areas of Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia 118 (2): 103-107 (1992b). BOKHARY, H.A. & PARVEZ, S. Chemical composition of desert truffles Terfezia claveryi. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 6 (3): 285-293 (1993). BOKHARY, H.A., PARVEZ, S. & SHIBL, A.M. Some spoilage microflora of desert truffles ‘al-kamah’ of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Food Protection 53: 779-781 (1990). BOUZIANI, N. Contribution à l’Étude et à la Mise en Valeur du Potentiel Truffier de la Région Orientale du Maroc. PhD Thesis; Faculté des Sciences, Ouijda (2009). CASTAÑEYRA-RUIZ, L., MARTÍNEZ, B., ÁNGEL COUTO, A., DE VERA, J.A. & FRÍAS-VIERA, I. Primera aportación al conocimiento del cultivo de la criada (Terfezia sp.) sobre el turmero (Helianthemum canariense) en la isla de Fuerteventura. Majorensis 5: 18-24 (2009). CHATIN, A. Contribution à l’histoire botanique de la truffe. Deuxième note: terfas ou truffes d’Afrique (et d’Arabie), genres Terfezia et Tirmania. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie de Sciences Paris, Série 3 112: 136-141 (1891). CHATIN, A. La Truffe. Paris, France; J.B. Ballière et fils. 330 pp. (1892). DABBOUR, I.R. & TAKRURI, H.R. Protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms found in Jordan. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 57 (1): 1-11 (2002a). DABBOUR, I.R. & TAKRURI, H.R. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 57 (1): 13-24 (2002b). DE ROMÁN, M. & BOA, E. Collection, marketing and cultivation of edible fungi in Spain. Micologia Aplicada International 16 (2) 25-33 (2004). DEXHEMIER, J., GERARD, J., LEDUC, J.P. & CHEVALIER, G. Comparative ultrastructural study of symbiotic mycorrhizal associations between Helianthemum salicifolium-Terfezia claveryi and Helianthemum salicifolium-Terfezia leptoderma. Canadian Journal of Botany 63 (3): 582-591 (1985). DÍEZ, J., MANJÓN, J.L. & MARTIN, F. Molecular phylogeny of the mycorrhizal desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania), host specificity and edaphic tolerance. Mycologia 94 (2): 247-259 (2002). EWAZE, J.O. & AL‐NAAMA, M.M. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of Terfezia spp. and Tirmania spp. New Phytologist 112 (3): 419-422 (1989). FORTAS, Z. & BELAHOUEL-DIB, S. Extraction des substances bioactives des terfez d’Algérie et mise en évidence de leur activité antimicrobienne. Revue des Régions Arides 2007 (1): 280-282 (2007). FORTAS, Z. & CHEVALIER, G. Effect of culture condition on the mycorrhization of Helianthemum guttatum by 3 species of truffles of the genera Terfezia and Tirmania from Algeria. Canadian Journal of Botany 70 (12): 2453-2460 (1992). GARIBAY-ORIJEL, R., RAMÍREZ-TERRAZO, A. & ORDAZ-VELÁZQUEZ, M. Women care about local knowledge, experiences from ethnomycology. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8: 25 (2012). [DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-8-25; http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/25, accessed 4 October 2013] GOUZI, H., BELYAGOUBI, L., ABDELALI, K.N. & KHELIFI, A. In vitro antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts from Algerian desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania, ascomycetes) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 13 (6): 553-558 (2011). GRAVITO HENRIQUES, J.L. Avaliação da Produção de Criadilhas (Terfezia spp.) na Área do Campo Albicastrense (Monte Fidalgo - Castelo Branco). Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território Direcção Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Centro Direcção de Serviços de Agricultura e Pescas Divisão de Produção Agricola e Pescas, Fundão 42 pp. (2012a). [www.drapc.min-agricultura.pt/base/documentos/producao_criadilhas_gravito_2012.pdf, accessed 30 September 2013] GUTIÉRREZ, A., HONRUBIA, M., MORTE, A. & DIAZ, G. Edible fungi adapted to arid and semi-arid areas. Molecular characterization and in vitro mycorrhization of micropropagated plants. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes 20: 139-144 (1996). GUTIÉRREZ, A., MORTE, A. & HONRUBIA, M. Ergosterol in Desert Truffle Mycorrhizas. 4 pp., New Zealand, Christchurch, Crop & Food Research (2002). GUTIÉRREZ, A., MORTE, A. & HONRUBIA, M. Morphological characterization of the mycorrhiza formed by Helianthemum almeriense Pau with Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire. Mycorrhiza 13 (6): 299-307 (2003). HASHEM, A.R. & AL-OBAID, A.M. Mineral composition of soil and wild desert truffles in Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Saud University Science 8 (1): 5-10 (1996) [publ. 1997]. HAWKER, L.E. British hypogeous fungi. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 237: 429-546, 29 figs (1954). HIFNAWY, M., AZZAM, S., SOLIMAN, S., SHAHEED, L. & LATIF, S.A. Egyptian desert truffles, androgenic natural product, possibility of abusing in sport. In W. SCHÄNZER, H. GEYER, A. GOTZMANN & U. MARECK-ENGELKE [eds] Recent Advances in Doping Analysis 9: 299-303 (2001). HONRUBIA, M., CANO, A. & MOLINA-NIÑIROLA, C. Hypogeous fungi from southern Spanish semi-arid land. Persoonia 14 (4): 647-653 (1992). HUSSAIN, G. & AL-RUQAIE, I.M. Occurrence, chemical composition, and nutritional value of truffles: an overview. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 2 (2): 510-514 (1999). JAMALI, S. & BANIHASHEMI, Z. Hosts and distribution of desert truffles in Iran, based on morphological and molecular criteria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 14 (6): 1379-1396 (2012a). JAMALI, S. & BANIHASHEMI, Z. Fungi associated with ascocarps of desert truffles from different parts of Iran. Journal of Crop Protection 1 (1): 41-47 (2012b). JAMALI, S. & BANIHASHEMI, Z. Nested-PCR for detecting Terfezia claveryi in roots of Helianthemum species in field and greenhouse conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 15 (2): 377-387 (2013). JANAKAT, S., AL-FAKHIRI, S. & SALLAL, A.K. A promising peptide antibiotic from Terfezia claveryi aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Phytotherapy Research 18 (10): 810-813 (2004). JANAKAT, S.M., AL-FAKHIRI, S.M. & SALLAL, A.K.J. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the truffle Terfezia claveryi against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Saudi Medical Journal 26 (6): 952-955 (2005). JANAKAT, S. & NASSAR, M. Hepatoprotective activity of desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi) in comparison with the effect of Nigella sativa in the rat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (1): 52-56 (2010). JANEX-FAVRE, M.C. & PARGUEY-LEDUC, A. Les asques et les ascospores du Terfezia claveryi Ch. (Tuberales). Cryptogamie, Mycologie 6 (2): 87-99 (1985). KHABAR, L. Études Pluridisciplinaires des Truffes du Maroc et Perspectives pour l’Amélioration de Production des “Terfess” de la Forêt de la Mamora. PhD Thesis, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat (2002). KHABAR, L., NAJIM, L., JANEX-FAVRE, M.C. & PARGUEY-LEDUC, A.P. Contribution to the study of the mycological flora of Morocco. The Moroccan truffles (Discomycetes). Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 117 (3): 213-229 (2001). KOVÁCS, G.M., BALÁZS, T.K., CALONGE, F.D. DE & MARTÍN, M.P. The diversity of Terfezia desert truffles: new species and a highly variable species complex with intrasporocarpic nrDNA ITS heterogeneity. Mycologia 103 (4): 841-853 (2011). KYRIAKOU, T., LOIZIDES, M. & TZIAKOURIS, A. Rarities and oddities from Cyprus. Field Mycology 10 (3): 94-98 (2009). LÆSSØE, T. & HANSEN, K. Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales? Mycological Research 111 (9): 1075-1099 (2007). LOIZIDES, M., HOBART, C., KONSTANDINIDES, G. & YIANGOU, Y. Desert truffles: the mysterious jewels of antiquity. Field Mycology 13 (1): 17-21 (2012). LÓPEZ‐NICOLÁS, J.M., PÉREZ‐GILABERT, M., LOZANO‐CARRILLO, M.C., GARCÍA‐CARMONA, F. & MORTE, A. Mycelium growth stimulation of the desert truffle Terfezia claveryi Chatin by β‐cyclodextrin. Biotechnology Progress [DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1791] (2013). MANDEEL, Q.A. & AL-LAITH, A.A. Ethnomycological aspects of the desert truffle among native Bahraini and non-Bahraini peoples of the Kingdom of Bahrain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110 (1): 118-129 (2007). MALENÇON, G. Champignons hypogés du nord de l’Afrique - 1 Ascomycètes. Persoonia 7 (2): 261-279 (1973). MINTER, D.W. Terfezia claveryi. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1978 (2013). MOAWAD, H., ALI, M.I.A., EL-SAIDI, M.T. & ABU-SHANAB, R.A.I. Survey of edible hypogeous ascomycotina of Egypt. African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology 5 (1): 1-12 (1997). MOHAWED, S.M., BADRAN, R.A.M. & EL-KHOLY, H. Incidence of fungal species naturally occurring in truffle resources. Egyptian Journal of Microbiology 36 (1): 1-17 (2001). MORENO ARROYO, B., GÓMEZ FERNÁNDEZ, J. & PULIDO CALMAESTRA, E. Tesoros de Nuestros Montes. Trufas de Andalucia. Consejería de Media Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, Córdoba, 352 pp. (2005). MORGAN, A. Use of Extracts of Pezizaceae in the Prevention and/or Treatment of Senile Cataracts. U.S. Patent Application 13/205,693, filed August 9, 2011 (2011). MORTE, A., ANDRINO, A., HONRUBIA, M. & NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A. Terfezia cultivation in arid and semiarid soils. In Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, pp. 241-263 (2012). MORTE, M.A., CANO, A., HONRUBIA, M. & TORRES, P. In vitro mycorrhization of micropropagated Helianthemum almeriense plantlets with Terfezia claveryi (desert truffle). Agricultural Science in Finland 3 (3): 309-314 (1994). MORTE, A., GUTIERREZ, A., DIESTE, C. & HONRUBIA, M. ¡Ya llegan las turmas! Eubacteria 11: 14-15 (2003). MORTE, M.A. & HONRUBIA, M. Micropropagation of Helianthemum almeriense. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 40: 163-177 (1997). MORTE, A., HONRUBIA, M. & GUTIÉRREZ, A. Biotechnology and cultivation of desert truffles. In A. VARMA [ed.] Mycorrhiza: State of the Art Genetics and Molecular Biology, Eco-function, Biotechnology, Eco-physiology, Structure and Systematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag, pp. 467-483 (2008). MORTE, A., LOVISOLO, C. & SCHUBERT, A. Effect of drought stress on growth and water relations of the mycorrhizal association Helianthemum almeriense-Terfezia claveryi. Mycorrhiza 10 (3): 115-119 (2000). MORTE, A., NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A. & NICOLÁS, E. Physiological parameters of desert truffle mycorrhizal Helianthemum almeriense plants cultivated in orchards under water deficit conditions. Symbiosis 52 (2-3): 133-139 (2010). MOUBASHER, A.H. Endangered desert truffles in Egypt and neighbouring Arab countries, with further notes on their distribution. Mycologia Balcanica 7 (1): 59-64 (2010). MURCIA, M.A., MARTÍNEZ-TOMÉ, M., JIMÉNEZ, A.M., VERA, A.M., HONRUBIA, M. & PARRAS, P. Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing. Journal of Food Protection 65 (10): 1614-1622 (2002). MURCIA, M.A., MARTÍNEZ-TOMÉ, M., VERA, A., MORTE, A., GUTIÉRREZ, A., HONRUBIA, M. & JIMÉNEZ, A.M. Effect of industrial processing on desert truffles (Terfezia calveryi Chatin and Picoa juniperi Vittadini): proximate composition and fatty acids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83 (6): 535-541 (2003). NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A., BÁRZANA, G., NICOLÁS, E., CARRA, A., SCHUBERT, A. & MORTE, A. Expression analysis of aquaporins from desert truffle mycorrhizal symbiosis reveals a fine-tuned regulation under drought. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26 (9): 1068-1078 (2013). NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A., LOZANO-CARRILLO, M.C., PÉREZ-GILABERT, M. & MORTE, A. Effect of water stress on in vitro mycelium cultures of two mycorrhizal desert truffles. Mycorrhiza 21 (4): 247-253 (2011). NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A., MORTE, A. & PÉREZ-GILABERT, M. Partial purification, characterization and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase from ascocarps of the edible desert truffle Terfezia claveryi Chatin. Plant Biology 11: 678-685 (2009). NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A., PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., TORRENTE, P. & MORTE, A. The role of phosphorus in the ectendomycorrhiza continuum of desert truffle mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhiza 22 (7): 565-575 (2012a). NAVARRO-RÓDENAS, A., RUÍZ-LOZANO, J.M., KALDENHOFF, R. & MORTE, A. The aquaporin TcAQP1 of the desert truffle Terfezia claveryi is a membrane pore for water and CO2 transport. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25 (2): 259-266 (2012b). OSTROWSKI, S., BEDIN, E., LENAIN, D.M. & ABUZINADA, A.H. Ten years of Arabian oryx conservation breeding in Saudi Arabia – achievements and regional perspectives. Oryx 32 (3): 209-222 (1998). PATEL, S. Food, health and agricultural importance of truffles: A review of current scientific literature. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 6 (1): 15-27 (2012). PEGLER, D.N. Useful Fungi of the World: the ‘Poor man’s truffles of Arabia’ and ‘Manna of the Israelites’. Mycologist 16 (1): 8-9 (2002). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., MORTE, A., ÁVILA-GONZÁLEZ, R. & GARCIA-CARMONA, F. Characterization and histochemical localization of nonspecific esterase from ascocarps of desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi Chatin). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (14): 5754-5759 (2005a). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., MORTE, A. & GARCÍA-CARMONA, F. Histochemical and biochemical evidences of the reversibility of tyrosinase activation by SDS. Plant Science 166 (2): 365-370 (2004). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., MORTE, A., HONRUBIA, M. & GARCÍA-CARMONA, F. Monophenolase activity of latent Terfezia claveryi tyrosinase: characterization and histochemical localization. Physiologia Plantarum 113 (2): 203-209 (2001a). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., MORTE, A., HONRUBIA, M. & GARCÍA-CARMONA, F. Partial purification, characterization, and histochemical localization of fully latent desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi Chatin) polyphenol oxidase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (4): 1922-1927 (2001b). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., MORTE, A., HONRUBIA, M. & GARCÍA-CARMONA, F. Purification and characterization of two enzymes involved in the quality of desert truffles: tyrosinase and lipoxygenase. Annals of the Marie Curie Fellowship Association 4 (2005d). [www.mariecurie.org/annals/volume4/lif2.pdf] PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., SANCHEZ-FELIPE, I. & GARCIA-CARMONA, F. Purification and partial characterization of lipoxygenase from desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi Chatin) ascocarps. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (9): 3666-3671 (2005b). PÉREZ-GILABERT, M., SÁNCHEZ-FELIPE, I., MORTE, A. & GARCÍA-CARMONA, F. Kinetic properties of lipoxygenase from desert truffle (Terfezia claveryi Chatin) ascocarps: effect of inhibitors and activators. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (15): 6140-6145 (2005c). RAYSS, T. Nouvelle contribution à l’étude de la mycoflore de Palestine (deuxième partie). Palestine Journal of Botany Jerusalem Series 1 (4): 313-335 (1940). SAWAYA, W.N., AL-SHALHAT, A., AL-SOGAIR, A. & AL-MOHAMMAD, M. Chemical composition and nutritive value of truffles of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Food Science 50 (2): 450-453 (1985). SBISSI, I., GHODHBANE-GTARI, F., NEFFATI, M., OUZARI, H., BOUDABOUS, A. & GTARI, M. Diversity of the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin in southern Tunisia. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 57 (7): 599-605 (2011). SHAVIT, E. Truffles roasting in the evening fires - pages from the history of desert truffles. Fungi 1 (3): 18-23 (2008). [http://fungimag.com/Truffle-Issue-08-articles/6_Medicinal.pdf] SHEMER, A. Kit for Treating Skin Infection. U.S. Patent Application 12/296,280, filed April 10, 2007 (2007). SLAMA, A., FORTAS, Z., NEFFATI, M., KHABAR, L. & BOUDABOUS, A. Taxonomic study of some truffles (Terfeziaceae) from southern Tunisia. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 122 (2-3): 187-195 (2006). TASTAD, A., SALKIN, A.K., BATTIKHA, N., JASRA, A.W. & LOUHAICHI, M. Ecological dynamics of protected and unprotected rangelands in three climatic zones of Syria. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 47 (2): 89-98 (2010). TRAPPE, J.M., CLARIDGE, A.W., ARORA, D. & SMIT, W.A. Desert truffles of the Kalahari: ecology, ethnomycology and taxonomy. Economic Botany 62 (3): 521-529 (2008). VASSILKOV, B.P. [as ВАССИЛИКОВ, Б.П.] De terfeziaceis nonnulis ex URSS notula [Steppe truffles in the USSR]. Ботанические Материалы Отдела Споровых Растений Ботанического Института Академий Наук СССР [Systematic Notes from the Cryptogamic Section of the Botanical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences] 8: 100-104 (1952). [text in Russian] VELASCO, J.M., MARTÍN, A. & GONZÁLEZ, A. Los nombres comunes y vernáculos castellanos de las setas: micoverna - I. Primera recopilación realizada a partir de literatura micológica e informantes. Boletín. Micológico FAMCAL 6: 155-216 (2011). VENTURELLA, G., ALTOBELLI, E., BERNICCHIA, A., DI PIAZZA, S., DONNINI, D., GARGANO, M.L., GORGÓN, S.P., GRANITO, V.M., LANTIERIA, A., LUNGHINI, D., MONTEMARTINI, A., PADOVAN, F., PAVARINO, M., PECORARO, L., PERINI, C., RANA, G., RIPA, C., SALERNI, E., SAVINO, E., TOMEI, P.E., VIZZINI, A., ZAMBONELLI, A. & ZOTTI, M. Fungal biodiversity and in situ conservation in Italy. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology 145 (4), 950-957 (2011). VOLPATO, G., ROSSI, D. & DENTONI, D. A reward for patience and suffering: ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara. Economic Botany 67 (2): 147-160 (2013).