This species is known only from two localities, both within tropical montane cloud (TMC) forest habitat. This genus was monographed for Mexico in 1994 by Bandala, and after his extensive search he only reported those two localities for this species. Vegetation type was confirmed from the protologue and from the vegetation records from vegetation types in Mexico from INEGI (2013). The TMC vegetation type represents only 1% of the land area of Mexico, and is severely fragmented (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012). Moreover, based on climate change models a decline of 68% of this vegetation type is predicted in the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012).
Based on available data, this species has a very restricted distribution nested in a very restricted vegetation type. GBIF records were explored to examine the possibility that the distribution extends into unexplored or under-explored surrounding areas, either with the same vegetation of some transitional one. No additional records for this species were found among 116 Mexican collection of its family (Cortinariaceae) through the GBIF search collected since 1994. The whole country has been extensible explored for the this genus in particular since the decade of 1980 (Guzman et al. 1987, Bandala et al. 1989, Bandala 1994, Bandala and Montoya 1994, Bandala et al. 1996). Considering the extensive exploration, it is very likely that the available records for Phaeocollybia singeri, is a fair representation of the real distribution for the taxa.
Considering the number of known localities, and the possibility of existence of other potentially suitable localities, the number of potential individuals can be estimated in 2000. Considering that models for predicting the effects of climate change have estimate a decline of 68% for the vegetation type over the next 60 years, it can be considered that Phaeocollybia singeri fits the endangered category because of criteria C1.
Phaeocollybia singeri was described by Guzmán et al. (Bandala-Muñoz et al. 1989). No taxonomic changes have been proposed since. It’s phylogenetic relationship within the genus has not been assessed.
Phaeocollybia singeri Guzmán, Bandala & Montoya [as ‘singerii’], in Bandala-Muñoz & Guzmán, Mycotaxon 35(1): 134 (1989)
From the protologue:
Pileus approximately 50 mm diam., broadly campanulate with a small conic umbo, margin slightly inrolled, glabrous, lubricus, light yellowish-brown. Lamellae subadnexed to nearly free, crowded, greyish brown with light edges. Stipe approximately 158x10mm, tapering into a long pseudorrhiza which is burried into the ground almost half its length, glabrous, fibrous, elastic, orange-brown, vinaceous-broun te nearly blackish towards the base. Context whitish with superficial brown or gold brown tinges; odor slightly farinaceous.
Spores (7.2-)8-8.8x4-4.8(-5.6) µ, almond shaped, subfusoid in frontal vew, minutely verrucose punctate, yellowish in KOH, inamyloid, thin walled. Basidia (20-)24-28.8x6.4-8µ, tetraspored, clavate, hyaline. Pleurocystidia none. Cheilocystidia 17.2-25.6x4-6.4(7.2)µ, abundant, clavate, clavate subcapitate, clavate subglobose, sometimes sublageniform, subutriform or with a medial septum, hyaline, thin walled. Pileus cuticule with glatinized hyphe, hyaline, 2.4-5.6µ thick, thin walled, smoth. Subcutis poorly diferenciated, consisting of thin walled, 2.4-5.6 µ thick, thin walled, smooth. Subcutis poorly differentiated, consisting of thin walled, 2.4-3.2(-4)µ wide hyphae, yellowish or orange brown in KOH. Pileus trama with hyphae 4-5.6µ broad, yellowish, thin walled. Hymenophoral tramaregular, hyphae (4-) 9.6-19.2µ broad, hyaline to yellowish in KOH, thin walled. Clamp connections absent.
This species was described by Guzmán et al. in 1989, based on a specimen collected in 1986. Phaeocollybia singeri is only known from two localities, the type locality near the city of Coatepec, Veracruz (1420m alt.) and near Llano de las Flores, Oaxaca (2900m alt.). Both localities are in tropical montane cloud (TMC) forests. Considering that this species is restricted to TMC forest and that models for the effect of climate change predicts a decline of this vegetation type in 68% over the next 60 years, this species will face pressures more severe than what it face currently.
This species is only known from the type locality, 3 km NW from the city of Coatepec, Veracruz, Mexico, road to Coatepec viejo, and from a locality near Llano de las Flores in Oaxaca. The type specimen was collected in 1986, with one additional observation from 2011 reported in GBIF (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/4737576). Both localities have a Tropical Montane Cloud forest, one of the most fragmented and threatened forest types in Mexico (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012). This genus was monographed by Bandala (1994) as part of his masters degree, and he did not report any additional locality. According with the records in GBIF additional 116 additional collection were made since 1994 for the family were the genus is (Cortinariaceae, according with GBIF taxonomy), but no additional record for this species is available. Additionally, there has been targeted searches for this genus throughout the country since 1980 (Guzman et al. 1987, Bandala 1994, Bandala et al. 1989, Bandala and Montoya 1994, Bandala et al. 1998). The result of the herbarium and field survey support the hypothesis that this species is very rare and restricted to Tropical Montane Cloud forests.
This species is only known from two localities. Reports from Coatepec city are likely from the same subpopulation. The genus has been extensively collected in Mexico over the past forty years (1977), resulting in nine species described from Mexico for a total of 19 species reported from the country (Bandala et al 1996). The most extensive research started in 1987 (Guzman et al. 1987) and continued over a 12 year period (Bandala et al. 1989, Bandala 1994, Bandala and Montoya 1994, Bandala et al. 1998). In his M. Sc. Thesis Bandala (1994) did an extensive search for the genus in the whole country, inspecting up to 200 specimens of the genus, finding only two localities for this species, both on TMC forest. According with the records in GBIF additional 116 additional collection were made since 1994 for the family were the genus is (Cortinariaceae, according with GBIF taxonomy), but no additional record for this species are available.
The two reports were collected in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMC). Based on climate change models, TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007). This would result in a significant decline in suitable habitat for Phaeocollybia singeri.
Population Trend: Uncertain
This species is only known only from two reports from tropical mountain cloud forest. It was collected once in 1986, and was reported in 2011. Both records likely are from the same subpopulation which occurs in a small patch of tropical montane cloud (TMC) forest surrounded by farmland areas. Species of Phaeocollybia were suspected to be parasitic (Redhead and Malloch 1986), but Norvell and Exeter (2009) demonstrate the ectomycorrhizal nature of the genus. TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007).
This species is only known from tropical montane cloud forest (TMC) habitats, associated with Quercus. TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007). Additionally, this species is rare, and its known localities are subject to pressure from development and land transformation to agriculture.
While climate change is a major threat to the species, habitat loss and degradation is also an ongoing threat. Reducing pressure due to land transformation—expansion of housing and conversion to farm and pasture land is need. Needed conservation actions are associated with the conservation of the habitat.
Based on its rareness and restricted distribution, the species possibly could also be listed under C1, but extensive fieldwork is needed to enable an estimate of the the actual number of mature individuals. Phylogenetic analyses are needed to understand its evolutionary and biogeographic history.
Bandala, V. M. (1994). Contribución al estudio monográfico del género Phaeocollybia (Fungi, Basidiomycotina, Agaricales) en México. M. Sc. Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, Mexico City.
Bandala-Muñoz, V. M., Guzmán, G., & Montoya-Bello, L. (1989). Additions to the knowledge of Phaeocollybia (Agaricales, Cortinariaceae) from Mexico, with description of new species. Mycotaxon 35(1): 127-152.
Bandala, V. M., & Montoya, L. (1994). Further investigations on Phaeocollybia with notes on infrageneric classification. Mycotaxon, 52(2), 397-422.
Bandala, V. M., Montoya, L., Guzmán, G., & Horak, E. (1996). Four new species of Phaeocollybia. Mycological research, 2(100), 239-243.
Guzmán, G., Bandala-Muñoz, V. M., & Montoya-Bello, L. (1987). The known species of Phaeocollybia (Agaricales, Cortinariaceae) in Mexico. Mycotaxon (USA).
INEGI, (12/12/2013). ‘Conjunto de datos vectoriales de uso de suelo y vegetación escala 1:250 000, serie V (capa unión)’, escala: 1:250000. edición: 2a. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes.
Ponce-Reyes, R., Reynoso-Rosales, V. H., Watson, J. E., VanDerWal, J., Fuller, R. A., Pressey, R. L., & Possingham, H. P. (2012). Vulnerability of cloud forest reserves in Mexico to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 2(6), 448.