• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Ramaria purpurissima R.H. Petersen & Scates

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Scientific name
Ramaria purpurissima
Author
R.H. Petersen & Scates
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Gomphales
Family
Gomphaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c, C2ai
Proposed by
Noah Siegel
Assessors
Noah Siegel
Reviewers
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

OK

ANDERS to NOAH. Check the text. Is VU appropriate? it >50% decline during the last 50 yrs it rather correspond to EN (i.e. that 50% of the oldgrowth present 1968 is gone by now - not comparing to “the original” amount).

VU was our assessment under the C2ai. It looks like it would fall under EN on the A2c.  It’s the same as this one… http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/75118122/0

Justification

Ramaria purpurissima is a rare ectomycorrhizal fungus, endemic to the Pacific Northwest of North America. It is characteristic for old-growth mature conifer forests. Ramaria have been extensive surveyed for under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1998, although this species in not on the list, it still has been collected as part of that effort. It’s a highly distinctive fungus, with large fruitbodies and bright purple colors, but still only known from 11 locations. The old growth mature forest habitat has become very rare due to timber logging during the last century, and the habitat is assessed as still declining (>60% population reduction in the past 100 years based on >90% loss of old growth forest). Ectomycorrhizal fungi are assessed during 50 years (corresponding to three generations). The decline of R. purpurissima during the last 50 years is estimated to exceed 30% and to be ongoing at a lower rate. The total number of locations is not considered to exceed 200 and the total number of mature individuals to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. Though the present known 11 sites are protected, the future of unrecorded localities and the habitat is insecure. It is assessed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

Described in 1987, based on a collection made in Idaho. Ramaria purpurissima var. gigantea (K.S. Thind & Anand) R.H. Petersen pertains to a species from India and southeast Asia; it is undoubtedly genetically distinct from the western North American species.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Only known from three isolated areas in California, Oregon and Idaho, USA.
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Population and Trends

Ramaria purpurissima is a very rare and highly distinctive fungus, with large fruitbodies and bright purple colors, but still only known from 11 locations (2018). Ramaria have been extensive surveyed for under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1998, although this species in not on the list, it still has been collected as part of that effort. Of the 11 known location are two in California from Mendocino National Forest, just south of the Yolla Bolly Wilderness; seven from southwest Oregon (Curry, Douglas, Jackson, Klamath and Lane counties) and two from Idaho in Kootenai County. It is characteristic for old-growth mature conifer forests. The old growth mature forest habitat has become very rare due to timber logging during the last century, and the habitat is assessed as still declining. The population of R. purpirissima is estimated to have been reduced by >60% in the past 100 years based on >90% loss of old growth forest. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are assessed during 50 years (corresponding to three generations; Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011). The decline of R. purpurissima during the last 50 years is estimated to exceed 30% and to be ongoing at a lower rate. The total number of locations,considering unrecorded ones, is not considered to exceed 200 and the total number of mature individuals to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. Though the present known 11 sites are protected, the future of unrecorded localities and the habitat is insecure.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

It is an ectomycorrhizal terrestrial fungus confined to old-growth mature forests where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Abies spp., Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla.  In California, it is known from old growth, mixed conifer forests dominated by Red Fir (Abies maginifica) and White Fir (A. concolor). Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia is perennial and may live for several decades and potentially much more than a century with a continuous presence of living trees and presence of an old-growth habitat.

Temperate Forest

Threats

This is a ectomycorrhizal fungus species dependent on living host trees for viability. The major threat to this species and its co-occurring co-generic brethren is habitat destruction, via the logging of old-growth forests to which it is confined. The extent of old growth forest in the Pacific Northwest of North America has declined 90% in the last century (Society of American Foresters 1984, Haynes 1986).

Fire is big threat to this species’ populations. A stand replacing fire could severely degrade and/or diminish its current range. Logging and machine clearing of understory vegetation should be limited in mature and old growth forest in areas where this species might occur. In California, it tends to occur in drier ‘fringe’ habitat, drought-induced death of its host trees is a concern.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Fire & fire suppression

Conservation Actions

Many of the known occurrences are on US Forest Service land; forest managers should be made aware of this species for additional protection.

Site/area protectionSite/area managementAwareness & communications

Research needed

This species should be added to the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan, and included as a Survey and Manage species; as it is rare, and old growth dependent.


Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Exeter, R., L. Norvell & E. Cázares. 2006. Ramaria of the Pacific Northwestern United States. USDI BLM/OR/WA/PT-06/050-1792, Salem, OR.

Haynes, T.W. 1986. Inventory and value of old-growth in the Douglas-fir region. PNW-RN 437. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

MyCoPortal. Mycology Collections Portal. Available at: http://mycoportal.org

Petersen, R.H. 1987. Contribution toward a monograph of Ramaria. VI. The Ramaria fennica-versatilis complex. Sydowia 40: 197-226

Society of American Foresters. 1984. Scheduling the harvest of old growth : Old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest : a position of the Society of American Foresters and Report of the SAF Task Force on Scheduling the Harvest of Old-Growth Timber. . Bethesda, MD.

Vellinga, E. 2017. Phaeocollybia oregonensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T75118122A75118153. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T75118122A75118153.en. Downloaded on 21 February 2018.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted