• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • NTAssessed
  • 5Published

Laccaria maritima (Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Laccaria maritima
Author
(Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen
Common names
Sand Deceiver
Duinfopzwam
Dünen-Lacktrichterling
Dynelakssopp
Dynlaxskivling
Klit-Ametysthat
Luiterupik
Hietikkolohisieni
Lakówka nadmorska
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hydnangiaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c
Proposed by
Wim Ozinga
Assessors
Wim Ozinga
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Izabela L. Kalucka, Claudia Perini, Else Vellinga

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Laccaria maritima is a very rare ectomycorrhizal fungus that is largely confined to lowland parts of Europe with some records from North America (Greenland, eastern Canada). It is restricted to shifting (mobile) dunes on nutrient-poor sandy soils where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides (and possibly also other species such as Pinus). In most countries it is very rare resulting in a severely fragmented distribution pattern. The number of known sites in Europe is about 50 (Fraiture & Otto 2015). Although the species is probably overlooked in some areas, the global population size is probably relatively small with an estimated number of mature individuals of

<50 000.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi are assessed during 50 years (corresponding to three generations) but for several countries the long-term trend is not or insufficiently known. For the countries were a trend is given in the Red List documentation, the species is in decline. Based on the available regional information the global population is likely to have declined during the past 50 years by >

30% (reduction of area of occupancy inferred from the number of grid cells / sites with records) and this decline is projected to continue due to habitat loss and degradation (although probably at a lower rate).
It is therefore assessed as Vulnerable (A2c+3c+4c).


Taxonomic notes

Laccaria maritima (Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen, Fungi Canadenses 319: 1 (1987)
Mycobank: MB#132996
≡Hygrophorus maritimus Theodor., Badania Przyrodnicze Pomorskie: 31 (1936) [MB#253228]


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

The Sand deceiver (Laccaria maritima) is rare and restricted to landscapes with shifting dunes on nutrient-poor sandy soils where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides (and possibly also other species such as Pinus). The species is vulnerable due to its rarity and the loss or impoverishment of its specific habitat.


Geographic range

The species is largely restricted to lowland parts of Europe but there are some records from North America (Greenland, eastern Canada), see map. In GBIF there are 118 georeferenced records (https://www.gbif.org/species/2530913; accessed 4-3-2019).


Population and Trends

Laccaria maritima is a very rare ectomycorrhizal fungus and the number of known sites in Europe is about 50 (Fraiture & Otto 2015). In most countries it is very rare (

<10 sites; see country specific information under regional status) resulting in a severely fragmented distribution pattern. Although the species is probably overlooked in some areas, the global population size is probably relatively small.
Ectomycorrhizal fungi are assessed during 50 years (corresponding to three generations) but for several countries the long-term trend is not or insufficiently known. For the countries were a trend is given in the Red List documentation, the species is in decline. Based on the available regional information the global population is likely to have declined during the past 50 years by >

30% (reduction of area of occupancy inferred from the number of grid cells / sites with records).
The species is characteristic for dune landscapes with habitat mosaics that include both shifting (mobile) dunes and more fixed dunes with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides. Landscapes with such dynamic habitat mosaics have declined over the past 50 years in several countries in area and quality (e.g. Janssen et al. 2016, Houston 2016; see also ‘Threats’).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The Sand deceiver (Laccaria maritima) is specific for landscapes with shifting (mobile) dunes on nutrient-poor sandy soils with no litter accumulation and a sparse vegetation (with pioneer plants like Ammophila arenaria). The species forms ectomycorrhiza with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides (and possibly also with other species such as Pinus but this needs confirmation). It mainly occurs in sandy dune landscapes along the shores of seas and large rivers and less often in inland dunes (Andersson 1950, Vellinga 1982, Huhtinen 1987, Elborne 1989, Watling 2005, Fraiture & Otto 2015). The soil can be dry (dry ‘white dunes’) to more or less wet (dune slacks). The stem of the fruitbodies is usually deeply buried in the sand and subsequently the cap height above the soil surface is very low (e.g. Høiland 2010). Although the species does not occur in very dry, highly dynamic dunes without vegetation it is dependent on shifting sand generated in such habitats and it is therefore probably dependent on landscapes with shifting habitat mosaics. Landscapes with such dynamic habitat mosaics have become relatively rare (e.g. Janssen et al. 2016).
Among the Natura 2000 habitat types (as used in EU’s Habitat Directive) it occurs mainly in the habitat types 2020 ‘Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes)’ and 2170 ‘Dunes with Salix repens ssp. argentea (Salicion arenariea)’. In addition there are records in 2130 ‘Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes)’. The latter often in the vicinity of more dynamic dunes.

Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, etc.

Threats

The specific habitat of the species, shifting sand dunes with Salix repens or Salix daphnoides, has experienced declines in extent and quality. Common threats include recreational activities, dams & water management and pollution such as nitrogen deposition (Ozinga et al. 2013, Janssen et al. 2016).
A large part of the remaining dune systems across northwest Europe has become increasingly stable in the past 50 years and therefore the area of suitable habitat has declined. This is largely the result of practices to stop sand drift (stabilisation of shifting dunes), the plantation of forests, invasive alien species (e.g. Rosa rugosa, Cotoneaster spp., Campylopus introflexus, Berberis aquifolium, Pinus spec.) and vegetation succession (i.e. the overgrowth of grasses and scrubs). The latter is accelerated by eutrophication from atmospheric Nitrogen deposition (Houston 2016).
In the European Red list of habitats (Janssen et al. 2016) all relevant habitat types were assessed as Vulnerable, i.e. Atlantic and Baltic white dunes (B1.3a), Atlantic and Baltic grey dunes (B1.4a) and Atlantic and Baltic wet dune slacks (B1.8a).

Recreational activitiesDams & water management/useNamed speciesAir-borne pollutants

Conservation Actions

Reduction of the levels of nitrogen deposition, restoring areas of bare sand and dune forming processes and site protection.

Site/area protection

Research needed

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.


Bibliography

Andersson, O. 1950. Larger fungi on sandy grass heaths and sand dunes in Scandinavia. Bot. Not. Suppl. Vol. 2:2.

Arnolds, E. & M. Veerkamp. (2008) Basisrapport Rode Lijst Paddenstoelen. Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging, Utrecht. [Red List of macrofungi in the Netherlands, in Dutch with an English summary]

Dämmrich F, Lotz-Winter H, Schmidt M, Pätzold W [†], Otto P, Schmitt Ja, Scholler M, Schurig B, Winterhoff W, Gminder A, Hardtke Hj, Hirsch G, Karasch P, Lüderitz M, Schmidt-Stohn G, Siepe K, Täglich U, Wöldecke K [†] (2016) Rote Liste der Großpilze und vorläufige Gesamtartenliste der Ständer- und Schlauchpilze (Basidiomycota und Ascomycota) Deutschlands mit Ausnahme der Flechten und der phytoparasitischen Kleinpilze. In: Matzke-Hajek G, Hofbauer N, Ludwig G (Red.) Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere, Pflanzen und Pilze Deutschlands, Bd. 8: Pilze (Teil 1) – Großpilze. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 70(8), Landwirtschaftsverlag Münster, 444 S. [In German]

Elborne, S.A. 1989. Danske klitsvampe. Svampe 19: 1–11

Fraiture A. & P. Otto. (eds) 2015. Distribution, ecology & status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Botanic Garden Meise, Meise.

Houston, J. (2016) LIFE Platform Meeting. Restoration of sand dune habitats. 15-17 June 2016, Zandvoort, The Netherlands, Summary Report.

Huhtinen, S. 1987. Laccaria maritima. Fungi Canadenses 319: 1-2

Høiland K, 2012. An investigation of basidiospore characteristics in sand dune mushrooms from Lista, South-western Norway. Agarica 2012, vol. 32, 49-58.

Janssen, J.A.M., Rodwell, J.S., Garci, A., Criado, M., Gubbay, S., Haynes, T., Nieto, A., Sanders, N., Landucci, F., Loidi, J., Ssymank, A., Tahvanainen, T. & Valderrabano, M. 2016. European Red list of habitats. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Mueller, G. M. 1991. The Swedish taxa of Laccuria (Tricholomataceae) with notes on
their distribution.  Nord. J. Bot. 10: 665-680.

Ozinga, W.A., E. Arnolds, P.J. Keizer & T.W. Kuyper (2013) Macrofungi in conservation management. OBN report. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Den Haag, The Netherlands. [In Dutch with English summary]

Vellinga, E.C. 1982 Laccaria maritima in Nederland. Coolia 25: 24-27.

Watling R, 2005. Fungal associates of Salix repens in northern oceanic Britain and their conservation   significance.  Mycological Research 109: 1418-1424.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted