• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Laccaria maritima (Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Laccaria maritima
(Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen
Common names
Sand Deceiver
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Wim Ozinga
Wim Ozinga
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Else Vellinga

Assessment Notes

Data and information may be asked for here.

Taxonomic notes

Laccaria maritima (Theodor.) Singer ex Huhtinen, Fungi Canadenses 319: 1 (1987)
Mycobank: MB#132996
≡Hygrophorus maritimus Theodor., Badania Przyrodnicze Pomorskie: 31 (1936) [MB#253228]

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

The Sand deceiver (Laccaria maritima) is rare and restricted to shifting dunes on nutrient-poor sandy soils where it forms ectomycorrhiza with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides (and possibly also other species such as Pinus). The species is vulnerable due to its rarity and the loss or impoverishment of its specific habitat.

Geographic range

The species is largely restricted to lowland parts of Europe but there are some records from North America ( Greenland, eastern Canada).

Population and Trends

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

The Sand deceiver (Laccaria maritima) is specific for landscapes with shifting dunes on nutrient-poor sandy soils with no litter accumulation. The species forms ectomycorrhiza with Salix repens and Salix daphnoides and possibly also with other species such as Pinus. It mainly occurs in sandy shores along seas and large rivers and less often in inland dunes. The soil can be dry (dry dunes) to more or less wet (dune slacks). The stem of the fruitbodies is usually deeply buried in the sand and subsequently the cap height above the soil surface is very low.

Among the Natura 2000 habitat types (EU’s Habitat Directive) it occurs mainly in the habitat type 2020 ‘Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes)’ and 2170 ‘Dunes with Salix repens ssp. argentea (Salicion arenariea)’. In addition there are records in 2130 ‘Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes)’.


Recreational activitiesDams & water management/useAir-borne pollutants

Conservation Actions

Research needed

Use and Trade


Andersson, O. 1950. Larger fungi on sandy grass heaths and sand dunes in Scandinavia. Bot. Not. Suppl. Vol. 2:2.
Arnolds, E. & M. Veerkamp. (2008) Basisrapport Rode Lijst Paddenstoelen. Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging, Utrecht
Elborne, S.A. 1989. Danske klitsvampe. Svampe 19: 1–11
Fraiture A. & P. Otto. (eds) 2015. Distribution, ecology & status of 51 macromycetes in Europe. Results of the ECCF Mapping Programme. Botanic Garden Meise, Meise.
Huhtinen, S. 1987. Laccaria maritima. Fungi Canadenses 319: 1-2
Høiland K, 2012. An investigation of basidiospore characteristics in sand dune mushrooms from Lista, South-western Norway. Agarica 2012, vol. 32, 49-58.
Mueller, G. M. 1991. The Swedish taxa of Laccuria (Tricholomataceae) with notes on
their distribution.  Nord. J. Bot. 10: 665-680.
Ozinga, W.A., E. Arnolds, P.J. Keizer & T.W. Kuyper (2013) Macrofungi in conservation management. OBN report. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Den Haag, The Netherlands. [In Dutch with English summary]
Vellinga, E.C. 1982 Laccaria maritima in Nederland. Coolia 25: 24-27.
Watling R, 2005. Fungal associates of Salix repens in northern oceanic Britain and their conservation   significance.  Mycological Research 109: 1418-1424.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted