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Alessioporus ichnusanus (Alessio, Galli & Littini) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini

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Scientific name
Alessioporus ichnusanus
Author
(Alessio, Galli & Littini) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini
Common names
Boleto sardo
Func’i filici
Büscheliger Eichen-Filzröhrling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-24
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
C2a(i)
Assessors
Persiani, A.M.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M., Gonçalves, S.C., Svetasheva, T. & Perini, C.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/147144825/167285525

Justification

Alessioporus ichnusanus is an ectomycorrhizal fungal species with distribution mainly confined to European Mediterranean region. It grows in thermophilous broadleaved forests, associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities.

The species has a restricted range and grows in small scattered localities. The largest number of records is reported from Italy, more than 100 records since the 1980s. The total population size is estimated as 8400 mature individuals, with 700 in the largest subpopulation. Population reduction has been observed and will continue into the future given that the main threats are fire, logging and wood harvesting, and habitat degradation due to anthropogenic activities.

Alessioporus ichnusanus qualifies for listing as Vulnerable under criterion C2a(i) as its total population size is estimated to be under 10000, with less than 1000 mature individuals in the largest subpopulation and population decline.

Geographic range

This is a European endemic species, primarily found and restricted to the Mediterranean region. It is reported from southern European countries extending from the Iberian peninsula (Portugal, Spain) to the Balkans (Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria). Single northern occurrences are reported in Austria and France (Assyov and Stoykov 2011, Becerra Parra and Robles Domínguez 2011 and references within, Calzada Dominguez 2007, Chevtzoff 1998, Gelardi et al. 2014 and references within, Karadelev and Rusevska 2017, Konstantinidis 2009, Gbif 2019, Österreichische Mykologische Gesellschaft 2019, Pereira 2015, Polemis et al. 2012).

In Italy Alessioporus ichnusanus occurs in 15 geopolitical regions. Most records concern Tyrrhenian and Adriatic-Ionian regions (Calabria, Tuscany, Sicily, Latium, Sardinia, Liguria and Emilia Romagna), with some records from Campania, Apulia, Abruzzo, Umbria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Marche and Veneto (Angelini et al. 2017, Italian National Biodiversity Network 2019, Gelardi 2010, Gelardi et al. 2014, Onofri et al. 2005, Pisani et al. 2016, Salerni and Perini 2007, Siniscalco et al. 2018a, Tomei and Zocco Pisana 1995, Vasquez 2014, Venturella et al. 2005, Zotti et al. 2008).

Population and Trends

Alessioporus ichnusanus is known from approximately 120 localities in Italy and from 18 other localities in Europe. As it is a conspicous fungus, well known and searched for, it is considered that it is appropriate to use a relatively low multiplier to take into account its unknown sites: it may be found at 2-5 times as many sites as currently known with the best estimate being 3, i.e. a total of 420 (280-700) sites. The average number of genets/site is estimated to be 2 at each locality, although numbers up to 50 are recorded in Tuscany and Latium and one locality in Sardinia reported an occurrence of 60-70 genets. We use the standard multiplier of 10 mature individuals per genet (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011), so on average 20 mature individuals per site. This results in a total population size estimated as 8400 (5600-14000) mature individuals, with 700 mature individuals in the largest known subpopulation.

The distribution of the species is more restricted than the distribution of suitable habitat. The number of localities is decreasing and is expected to keep decreasing due to anthropogenic activities in its habitat.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Alessioporus ichnusanus is a thermophilous and xerophilous species, that grows in small scattered localities during warm and dry years and consequently fluctuating in fructification. The principal habitat of this heliophilous species is represented by deciduous, semideciduous or evergreen forests of xero-thermophilus species found mainly in submediterranean climate regions and at supramediterranean altitudinal levels (Barbati and Marchetti 2005, Pisani et al. 2016).

The species is mostly associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities (Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Q. coccifera, Q. cerris, Q. robur, Q. pubescens, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. frainetto) with which it shows a certain degree of specificity (Gelardi et al. 2014). Recent phylogenetic molecular analysis confirmed the monotypic genus Alessioporus as ectomycorrhizal (Tedersoo and Smith 2017). Quercus cerris, Q. ilex and Q. suber are the preferential ectomycorrhizal partners (Gelardi et al. 2014 and references within, Siniscalco et al. 2014). 

Most of the records are from thermophile oak forests, both deciduous and evergreen. However, it has also been reported with other hosts with only one record in a reforestation with Abies alba mixed with Fagus (Gelardi et al. 2014 and references within, Karadelev and Rusevska 2017, Siniscalco et al. 2018b, Tentori 2006, Vasquez 2014).

It typically occurs in rather nutrient-poor, sandy, calcareous soils during the driest period of the year (summer to early autumn). It has been recorded both on acidic (pH 5.5-6.2) and basic soils (pH 7.6 or 8.0) (Gelardi et al. 2014, Pereira 2015, Siniscalco et al. 2014).

Threats

The main threats are modifications to the natural system in particular due to the increase of fire intensity/frequency, habitat loss and degradation resulting from changes in management regime (Blasi et al. 2005). 

Harvesting wood represents another major threat; in Italy this threat is especially present in Sicily.

Other threats are disturbances due recreational and residential and commercial development.

Conservation Actions

Alessioporus ichnusanus is not protected by international, national, or regional laws although it has been included in the Red List of Italian macrofungi (Rossi et al. 2013). 

Most of the records are located in unprotected areas. Therefore, conservation actions such as habitat protection and limiting development would be helpful. 

Ex situ conservation in culture collections developed for the preservation and maintenance of the fungal genetic resources may also be of great relevance.

Additionally, further surveys and continuation of ongoing population size monitoring are recommended in order to better understand the distribution and ecological needs of Alessioporus ichnusanus.

Use and Trade

Alessioporus ichnusanus is considered an edible species, however Brotzu and Colomo (2009) reported the species as probably poisonous.

Source and Citation

Persiani, A.M. 2019. Alessioporus ichnusanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147144825A167285525. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T147144825A167285525.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

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