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Boletus ichnusanus (Alessio, Galli & Littini) Oolbekk.

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Scientific name
Boletus ichnusanus
Author
(Alessio, Galli & Littini) Oolbekk.
Common names
Boleto sardo
Func’i filici
Büscheliger Eichen-Filzröhrling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN C2a(i)
Proposed by
Claudia Perini
Assessors
Italian Botanical Society Mycology Working Group Coordinator: Anna Maria Persiani, Claudia Perini
Editors
Paola Angelini, Veronica Spinelli, Tatyana Svetasheva
Contributors
. Agaricwatching Mycological Association, . Associazione Micologica Ecologica Romana (AMER), . ISPRA Special Fungi Project, . Italian Botanical Society Mycology Working Group
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Susana C. Gonçalves, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Robert Philipp Wagensommer

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Alessioporus ichnusanus is an ectomycorrhizal fungal species with distribution confined to European Mediterranean region.
It grows in thermophilous broadleaved forests, associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities.
The species has a restricted range and grow in small scattered localities. The largest number of records is reported for Italy, more than 100 records since the ’80. Most of the records show a number of mature individuals lower than 5 (1-3), higher numbers of mature individuals up to 50 are recorded in Tuscany and Latium. Only in a location in Sardinia is reported an occurrence of more than 50 (60-70) mature individuals.
Population reduction has been observed and will continue to be met in the future given that the main threats are fire, logging and wood harvesting, and habitat degradation due to anthropic activities.

Alessioporus ichnusanus qualifies for listing as Endangered under criterion C2a(i)+D, because of less than 250 mature individuals in largest subpopulation and population decline.


Taxonomic notes

Alessioporus ichnusanus (Alessio, Galli & Littini) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, in Gelardi, Simonini, Ercole & Vizzini, Mycologia 106(6): 1171 (2014)

Basionym: Xerocomus ichnusanus Alessio, Galli & Littini, in Alessio, Boll. Gruppo Micol. G. Bres. 27(3–4): 170 (1984)
≡ Boletus ichnusanus (Alessio, Galli & Littini) Oolbekkink, Persoonia 14(3): 269 (1991)
≡ Boletus pulverulentus Opat. sensu Cetto, Les Champignons de A à Z. Vol. 1: 112-113 (1980)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Alessioporus ichnusanus is considered uncommon to rare and threatened given that it is documented only in a small portion of its known habitat ranges. It is an ectomycorrhizal fungal species with distribution confined to European Mediterranean region.
Alessioporus ichnusanus occurs in thermophilous broadleaved forests, associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities.
The species has a restricted range and grow in small scattered localities, presents strong fluctuations in fructification. The largest number of records is reported for Italy (more than 100 records from the ’80). Most of the records show a number of mature individuals lower than 5 (1-3), higher numbers of mature individuals up to 50 are recorded in Tuscany and Latium. Only in a location in Sardinia is reported an occurrence of more than 50 (60-70) mature individuals.
Population reduction has been observed and will continue to be met in the future given that the main threats are fire, logging and wood harvesting, and habitat degradation due to anthropic activities.

Alessioporus ichnusanus qualifies for listing as Endangered under criterion C2a(i)+D, because of less than 250 mature individuals in largest subpopulation and population decline.


Geographic range

The distribution pattern of the species appears restricted to the Mediterranean region. It is reported for southern European countries extending from Peninsula Iberica (Portugal, Spain) to Balcans (Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria). Single northern occurrences are reported in Austria and France (Assyov and Stoykov, 2011; AMS 2009; Becerra Parra and Robles Domínguez, 2011 and references within; Calzada Dominguez, 2007; Chevtzoff, 1998; Gelardi et al., 2014 and references within; Karadelev and Rusevska, 2017; Konstantinidis, 2009; Occdownload Gbif.Org, 2019; Pereira, 2015; Polemis et al., 2012).
In Italy Alessioporus ichnusanus occurs in 15 geopolitical regions. Most of records concern both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic-Ionian regions (Calabria, Tuscany, Sicily, Latium, Sardinia, Liguria and Emilia Romagna), with some records from Campania, Apulia, Abruzzo, Umbria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Marche and Veneto (Angelini et al., 2017; Checklist of the macrobasidiomycetes of Italy;  Gelardi, 2010; Gelardi et al., 2014; Onofri et al., 2005; Pisani et al., 2016; Salerni and Perini, 2007; Siniscalco et al., 2018a; Tomei and Zocco Pisana, 1995; Vasquez, 2014; Venturella et al., 2005; Zotti et al., 2008).


Population and Trends

Given the restricted range of occurrence, limited to the Mediterranean region, of Alessioporus ichnusanus only a European trend can be established.
Alessioporus ichnusanus is known from approximately 120 localities in Italy and also in other 18 localities in the Mediterranean region of Europe.
According to the data, the species appears in small and scattered populations, each one with a very small number (1-3) of mature individuals making easy that each disturbance of the population’s habitat may lead to the extinction of the population.
Despite its habitat occupies a wider area than those in wich Alessioporus has been recorded, some of its populations are decreasing and are expected to keep decreasing, mainly due to the impacts of fires, forestry, logging and wood harvesting, and of anthropic acitivities in its habitat.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Alessioporus ichnusanus is a thermophilous and xerophilous species, that grows in small scattered localities during warm and dry years and consequently fluctating in fructification. Therefore, the principal habitat of this heliophilous species is represented by deciduous, semideciduous or evergreen forests of xero-thermophilus species found mainly in submediterranean climate regions and at supramediterranean altitudinal levels. Submediterranean climate is characteristic of a considerable part of the Mediterranean region (Barbati and Marchetti, 2005; Pisani et al., 2016).
Alessioporus ichnusanus is mostly associated with pure or mixed evergreen sclerophyllous and deciduous oak communities (Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Q. coccifera, Q. cerris, Q.robur, Q.pubescens, Q.petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. frainetto)  with which it shows a certain degree of specificity (Gelardi et al., 2014). Recent phylogenetic molecular analysis confirmed the monotypic genus Alessioporus as ectomycorrhizal (Tedersoo and Smith, 2017). Q. cerris, Q. ilex and Q. suber are the preferential ectomycorrhizal partners (Gelardi et al., 2014 and references within; Siniscalco et al., 2014).
Most of the records concern thermophile oak forests, both deciduous (Q. cerris, Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens) and evergreen (Q. suber, Q. ilex). However, it has also been with other fagaceous hosts such as Castanea sativa, Cistus spp. (Cistaceae), Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea (Pinaceae), Populus alba, Salix spp., Erica arborea, Corylus avellana, Pteridium aquilinum and perhaps also with the exotic Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Only one record concern reforestation of Abies alba mixed with Fagus (Gelardi et al., 2014 and references within; Karadelev and Rusevska, 2017; Siniscalco C. et al., 2018b; Tentori, 2006; Vasquez, 2014).
It typically occurs in rather nutrient-poor, sandy, calcareous soils during the driest period of the year (summer to early autumn). It has been recorded both on acidic (pH 5.5-6.2) and basic soils (pH 7.6 or 8.0) (Gelardi et al., 2014; Pereira, 2015; Siniscalco et al., 2014).

Temperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Dry Forest

Threats

The main threats are the modifications of the natural system in particular due to the increase of fire intensity/frequency, the habitat loss and degradation resulting from change of management regime. Mediterranean ecosystems are among those most significantly modified by fires which, together with overgrazing and excessive cutting, have created widespread forms of land degradation (Blasi et al., 2005).
In fact, considering that Alessioporus ichnusanus is an ectomycorrhizal, logging and wood harvesting represent another extremely relevant threat; in Italy this threat is especially present in Sicily.
Other relevant threats are those related to the anthropic presence, both the disturbance due recreational and work activities both in terms of residential and commercial development.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasScale Unknown/UnrecordedUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesWork & other activitiesIncrease in fire frequency/intensityOther ecosystem modifications

Conservation Actions

Alessioporus ichnusanus is unprotected by international, national, and regional laws. Alessioporus ichnusanus has been included in the Red List of Italian macrofungi (Rossi et al., 2013).
Most of the records are located in unprotected areas. Therefore, the activation of conservation actions such as collecting more information on ecology and distribution would be appropriate.
The presence of the species in areas subjected to protection such as parks and nature reserves, even in the absence of specific conservation actions for the species, constitute appropriate indirect preservation strategies related to the protection of the habitats. Ex situ conservation in culture collections finalized to the preservation and maintenance of the fungal genetic resources may also be of great relevance.

Resource & habitat protectionGenome resource bank

Research needed

In addition to research actions, further surveys and continuation of the ongoing population size monitoring are recommended in order to better understand the distribution and ecological traits of Alessioporus ichnusanus.

Population size, distribution & trendsPopulation trends

Use and Trade

Alessioporus ichnusanus is an edible species but curiously, it has been referred to it as probably poisonous (Gelardi et al., 2014).

Food - human

Bibliography

Alessio, C. (1984). Un boleto non ancora noto: Boletus ichnusanus. Xerocomus Ichnusanus 3–4.
Angelini, P., Arcangeli, A., Bistocchi, G., Rubini, A., Venanzoni, R., and Perini, C. (2017). Current knowledge of Umbrian macrofungi (central Italy). Plant Biosyst. - Int. J. Deal. Asp. Plant Biol. 151, 915–923.
Assyov, B., and Stoykov, D.Y. (2011). First record of Boletus ichnusanus (Boletaceae) in Bulgaria. Phytol Balc 17, 269–272.
Austrian Mycological Society, 2015: Database of fungi in Austria. Edited by Dämon, W., Hausknecht, A., Krisai-Greilhuber, I. - [ http://www.austria.mykodata.net ].
Barbati, A., and Marchetti, M. (2005). Forest Types for Biodiversity Assessment (FTBAs) in Europe: the revised classification scheme. Monit. Indic. For. Biodivers. Eur. Ideas Oper. 105.
Becerra Parra, M., and Robles Domínguez, E. (2011). Aportaciones al conocimiento de la micoflora de la Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, España).
Blasi, C., Bovio, G., Corona, P., Marchetti, M., Maturani, A., and Di Marzio, P. (2005). Fires and ecosystem complexity from forest assessment to habitat restoration (Palombi Editore).
Calzada Dominguez, A. (2007). Guía de los boletos de España y Portugal. Medina Campo Spain Náyade Editor.
Checklist of the macrobasidiomycetes of Italy Available at http://dryades.units.it/macrobasidiomiceti/index.php?procedure=taxon_page&id=4175
Chevtzoff, B. (1998). Xerocomus ichnusanus Alessio, Galli R. & Littini, Boletales nouvelle pour la France. Bull Sem Féd Mycol Médit 13, 14–20.
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Gelardi, M., Simonini, G., Ercole, E., and Vizzini, A. (2014). Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), two novel genera for Xerocomus ichnusanus and X. roseoalbidus from the European Mediterranean basin: molecular and morphological evidence. Mycologia 106, 1168–1187.
Karadelev, M., and Rusevska, K. (2017). NEW DATA ON MACROMYCETE SPECIES (BASIDIOMYCOTA) IN MACEDONIA. Contrib. Sect. Nat. Math. Biotech. Sci. 37.
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Vasquez, G. (2014). Indagini Micologiche sulle Boletales Epigee del Terittorio Siciliano-mappatura e censimento delle specie [PhD thesis]. Univ Studi Catania Catania.
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Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted