• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Phylloporus fibulatus Singer, Ovrebo & Halling

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Scientific name
Phylloporus fibulatus
Author
Singer, Ovrebo & Halling
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A4c
Proposed by
Aída M. Vasco-Palacios
Assessors
Adriana Calle, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Pablo Sandoval-Leiva, Aída M. Vasco-Palacios
Editors
Gregory Mueller
Contributors
Manuela Zuluaga Moreno
Comments etc.
Aída M. Vasco-Palacios, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Phylloporous fibulatus is endemic to Colombia where it is found in wet montane forests dominated by Quercus humboldtii. The species forms an obligate mycorrhizal relationship with Q. humboldtii. There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to significant past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. There is a reported nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as vulnerable (VU A2cd) there (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. A loss of its mycorrhizal host directly impacts Phylloporous fibulatus - and it is estimated that the species has undergone rapid population decline in the past that will continue into the future resulting in a population decline of between 30-50% over three generations. Therefore, the species is listed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

This species was first described in Colombian montane forests by Singer, Halling and Obrevo, from specimens collected under Quercus humbodtii in Antioquia and Nariño departments (Singer et al. 1990)
Phylloporus fibulatus can be distinguished from other similar taxa because of a combination of characters: presence of clamp connections, the fresh spore print has an olive tone and the absence of a blue green reaction to ammonia (Singer et al. 1990)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species first was described from Colombia in mountain forests, and more collections have been found there since. It has not been found in other Neotropical forests, although it might occur outside Colombia because of similar forest types in the montane Neotropics (Neves & Halling 2009). Phylloporus fubulatus is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Quercus humboldtii

 


Geographic range

Phylloporus fibulatus is an endemic species of Colombia. This species has been collected in Antioquia, Nariño and Tolima departments. It is restricted to the distribution of Quercus humboldtti, with which it forms an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. 


Population and Trends

Phylloporus fibulatus is only known from a few scattered sites in Antioquia, Nariño and Tolima, in montane forests with Quercus humboldtii (Vasco-Palacios and Franco-Molano 2013, Peña and Vasco-Palacios 2019). Its host tree has a wider distribution, and Phylloporus fibulatus likely occurs in other localities around the country. Phylloporus fibulatus is known from 13 herbarium specimens housed in the herbarium at the University of Antioquia (HUA), collected between 1986 and 2018. There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to past and ongoing habitat loss and a decline in habitat quality. Further pressure and population reductions are expected to continue. There has been nearly a 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as Vulnerable (VU A2cd) there (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. A loss of its mycorrhizal host directly impacts Phylloporous fibulatus - and it is estimated that the species has undergone rapid population decline in the past and that will continue into the future resulting in a population decline of between 30-50% over three generations.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Phylloporus fibulatus is restricted to wet montane Quercus humboldtii forests of Colombia and is found in soil and litter. The species is obligatorily ectomycorrhizal with Quercus humboldtii. It has been commonly encountered at the sites where it has been reported.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The main known threat to Phylloporus fibulatus is the loss of habitat and increased fragmentation due to deforestation and the decrease of it host species Quercus humboldtii. Anthropogenic pressure on oak forests and habitat degradation are mainly due to land use changes including logging, deforestation, and urbanization. In addition, timber extraction carried out for the production of charcoal in the past and continued use of wood for construction of houses and furniture has significantly negatively impacted oak populations (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007, Nieto and Rodriguez 2010). There are several large mining initiatives being considered for the region, and if they come to fruition they will have a significant negative impact. There has been nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as Vulnerable (VU A2cd) (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future.

Housing & urban areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Habitat protection and management are needed. Populations of the host tree, Quercus humboldtii, occur in several protected sites, including the slopes of Nevados del Puracé and Huila, Parque Nacional Darién, Los Guacharos National Park, Corredor de Conservación de Robles Guantiva – La Rusia – Iguaque, and biological reserves on private land (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007). But most of the habitat is unprotected and susceptible to deforestation or degradation.

Site/area protectionHabitat & natural process restoration

Research needed

Research is needed to evaluated population trends. Also more distributional data are needed, and studies with DNA are needed for phylogenetic inference and to provide information to enable identification of any environmental samples required for molecular based ecology studies. 

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade

No uses has been reported for this species


Bibliography


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted