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Phylloporus fibulatus Singer, Ovrebo & Halling

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Scientific name
Phylloporus fibulatus
Author
Singer, Ovrebo & Halling
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-04-01
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A4c
Assessors
Vasco-Palacios, A.M., Zuluaga, M., Calle, A., Drechsler-Santos, E.R., Kossmann, T., da Cunha, K.M. & Sandoval-Leiva, P.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/172831186/179542468

Justification

Phylloporous fibulatus is endemic to Colombia where it is found in wet montane forests dominated by Quercus humboldtii. The species forms an obligate mycorrhizal relationship with Q. humboldtii. There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to significant past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. There is a reported nearly 42% loss of Q. humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as vulnerable (VU A2cd) there (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. A loss of its mycorrhizal host directly impacts Phylloporous fibulatus - and it is estimated that the species has undergone rapid population declines in the past that will continue into the future resulting in a population decline of between 30-50% over three generations. Therefore, the species is listed as Vulnerable.

Geographic range

Phylloporus fibulatus is an endemic species of Colombia. This species has been collected in Antioquia, Nariño and Tolima departments. It is restricted to the distribution of Quercus humboldtti, with which it forms an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

Population and Trends

Phylloporus fibulatus is only known from a few scattered sites in Antioquia, Nariño and Tolima, in montane forests with Quercus humboldtii (Vasco-Palacios and Franco-Molano 2013, Peña-Venegas and Vasco-Palacios 2019). Its host tree has a wider distribution, and Phylloporus fibulatus likely occurs in other localities around the country. Phylloporus fibulatus is known from 13 herbarium specimens housed in the herbarium at the University of Antioquia (HUA), collected between 1986 and 2018. There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to past and ongoing habitat loss and a decline in habitat quality. Further pressure and population reductions are expected to continue. There has been nearly a 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as Vulnerable (VU A2cd) there (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. A loss of its mycorrhizal host directly impacts Phylloporous fibulatus - and it is estimated that the species has undergone rapid population decline in the past and that will continue into the future resulting in a population decline of between 30-50% over three generations.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Phylloporus fibulatus is restricted to wet montane Quercus humboldtii forests of Colombia and is found in soil and litter. The species is obligatorily ectomycorrhizal with Quercus humboldtii. It has been commonly encountered at the sites where it has been reported.

Threats

The main known threat to Phylloporus fibulatus is the loss of habitat and increased fragmentation due to deforestation and the decrease of it host species Quercus humboldtii. Anthropogenic pressure on oak forests and habitat degradation are mainly due to land use changes including logging, deforestation, and urbanization. In addition, timber extraction carried out for the production of charcoal in the past and continued use of wood for construction of houses and furniture has significantly negatively impacted oak populations (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007, Nieto and Rodriguez 2010). There are several large mining initiatives being considered for the region, and if they come to fruition they will have a significant negative impact. There has been nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed as Vulnerable (VU A2cd) (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future.

Conservation Actions

Habitat protection and management are needed. Populations of the host tree, Quercus humboldtii, occur in several protected sites, including the slopes of Nevados del Puracé and Huila, Parque Nacional Darién, Los Guacharos National Park, Corredor de Conservación de Robles Guantiva – La Rusia – Iguaque, and biological reserves on private land (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007). But most of the habitat is unprotected and susceptible to deforestation or degradation. Research is needed to evaluated population trends. Also more distributional data are needed, and studies with DNA are needed for phylogenetic inference and to provide information to enable identification of any environmental samples required for molecular based ecology studies.

Use and Trade

No uses has been reported for this species.

Source and Citation

Vasco-Palacios, A.M., Zuluaga, M., Calle, A., Drechsler-Santos, E.R., Kossmann, T., da Cunha, K.M. & Sandoval-Leiva, P. 2020. Phylloporus fibulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T172831186A179542468. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T172831186A179542468.en .Accessed on 31 January 2022

Country occurrence