A well known, conspicous and much looked after species that has disappeared and/or decreased dramatically from many parts of Europe. The prime cause for its decline is conventional compartment cutting of continuity forests – the species disappears after clear-cut felling and is possibly also negatively affected by tjhe ceasing of cattle grazing in forests. Red-listed in 10 European countries, extinct in several central European countries and . The status of the species in Russia a little bit unclear.
Preliminary globally red list assessment: NT A2c+3c+4c (Near Threatened).
Length of evaluation period: 50 years (3 generations) according to recommendations of Dahlberg & Mueller (2011). Only A criterion applies as the species is widely distributed and the relatively large total population disqualifies the use of criteria B-D. Past, ongoing and future habitat decline is estimated to negatively affect the habitat of S. globosum and hence also the total population. The population decline is possible to infer from the decline of the habitat. Possibly is the future more bleak.
Assessment motivation need to be finalized and supporting information/data developed..
The species is mainly known from the boreal zone of Euroasia with main population from Sweden to Russia W. of the Ural Mountains reaching its distribution limit in Asian parts of Russia. Most of the Central European and small and fragmented populations close to the edges of the distribution area seem today extinct. Also occurring rarely in N. America, but frequency unknown and also include similar but different species. Do not occur in Western North America.
Has a wide distribution area but the main known occurrences situated in Sweden. A Species Action Program for Sarcosoma globosum 2010-2014 in Sweden provides a compilation of the species biology, status in Sweden and Europe as well suggestions of needed actions for conservation. The program can be downloaded, see below. Summary is available in English.
Population Trend: Stable
Unknown terrestrial life form in spruce forests. Has often been referred to as saprotrophic, but has also been suggested as a mycorrhizal fungus. Mainly occuring in older forest, often that has been grazed by cattle for centauries, and most often in spruce dominated stands (Picea). Also in pristine forests. Carpophores produced shortly after snow melting in early spring.
Main threat is logging destroy the fungus habitat. The species seems to be favored by long forest continuity and there are no records from plantations or younger forest stands. The area of forest that have not been subjected to forestry is rapidly decreasing and the rate are expected to be at least 30% in 50 years (3 generations) in Sweden.
Protection of pristine boreal forests; Key habitats; Sustainable forestry without clear-cutting.
Action plan for the species is undertaken in Sweden.
Research and monitoring is needed to conclude how to develop sustainable forestry without current methods of clear-cutting and plantations.
The life strategy of the species is unknown and the suspicion that the species is saprotrophic is only tentative. It more behaves like a mycorrhizal/parasitic species or something inbetween.
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Dahlberg A & Mueller G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16
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Nitare, J. 2009. Åtgärdsprogram för bombmurkla (Sarcosoma globosum) 2010-2014. (Species Action Plan for Sarcosoma globosum 2010-2014, In Swedish with English summary) http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Documents/publikationer/978-91-620-6333-7.pdf
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