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Austroboletus festivus (Singer) Wolfe

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Scientific name
Austroboletus festivus
Author
(Singer) Wolfe
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-03-31
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2c
Assessors
Neves, M.A., Furtado, A. & Cardoso, J.S.
Reviewers
Smith, M. & Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/172740512/172861192

Justification

This species is known from the coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are records from four sites, but it is likely to be more widespread. Based on the severe habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline of between 30% and 50% within the last three generations (50 years). It is, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable A2c.

Taxonomic notes

The taxonomy of this family is currently highly fluid - this species may therefore move into a new genus. There are records assigned to this species name from Brazil, Guyana and Colombia, however the sequences are sufficiently different that it is unlikely that they represent the same species. We therefore consider this species to be restricted to the coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil, with other cryptic species requiring new names.

Geographic range

It is known from the coastal Atlantic Forest of Brazil (Pernambuco, Paraná and Santa Catarina states) in restinga. Records from Colombia and Guyana are likely to represent different species.

Population and Trends

Although it is usually found in relatively large clusters / number of basidiomes, Austroboletus festivus grows in a specific type of vegetation that has been threatened by population growth and expansion along the Brazilian coast. Due to its inconspicuous macromorphological characteristics it is difficult to observe in the field. In Brazil there are 17 records in fungaria (splink.org.br).

There are three known sites, with 4-10 genets per site; multiplied by 10 to calculate number of ramets = 40-100 ramets per site, and therefore a total of 120-300 mature individuals in the known sites. This is a species with medium detectability, but the possible area of suitable habitat is very large, therefore we have decided to apply a multiplier of 100-1,000 to account for the potential unknown sites. This gives a total population estimate of 12,000-300,000 mature individuals.

There has been a habitat decline of Atlantic forest of over 90% since the 1940's. There is a lack of data to be able to calculate precise declines of this habitat type within the last three generations (50 years) of this species, but based on this we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 30% within the past three generations and that this also equates to a population decline of at least 30% within this timeframe.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

It is found growing solitarily to scattered in white sandy soil in restinga areas from Brazil, possibly associated with Nyctaginaceae spp.

Threats

There is concern over a decline of the habitat considering the restinga areas, as they are small highly fragmented patches open to recreational activities and tourism and there are no strict laws that restrict the use of these areas. Also, the areas in southern and north-eastern Brazil have been impacted by urban growth, threatening the last remnants of Atlantic Coast restingas. Invasion by non-native pine (Pinus elliottii) is another threat.

Conservation Actions

This species has been recorded in protected areas, but much of its distribution is unprotected. In addition, one of the threats is invasive non-native species, from which the protected areas offer no real protection. Further site protection and management of habitats should be considered as conservation actions for this species. It would be beneficial to take into account the distribution of this and other threatened species in urban planning.

Taxonomic research is required to clarify this species and its distribution. There are records assigned under this name from Brazil, Guyana and Colombia, however DNA sequences are sufficiently different that it is unlikely that they represent the same species. We therefore consider this species to be restricted to the coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil, with other cryptic species requiring new names. Research on the plant symbionts would also be beneficial to understand both the species delimitation and its habitat requirements.

Use and Trade

This species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Neves, M.A., Furtado, A. & Cardoso, J.S. 2020. Austroboletus festivus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T172740512A172861192. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T172740512A172861192.en .Accessed on 31 January 2022

Country occurrence